NSB 231 Integrated Nursing Practice 2 – On Campus ASSESSMENT TASK
Assessment Task 2
|Assessment name:||Case Study: Nursing Priorities|
|Task description:||1. For this essay you are required to select ONE (1) case option:|
Carefully review your chosen case and apply your knowledge of evidence-based nursing practice to plan person-centred care.
Using the clinical reasoning cycle as a framework, you are required to assess, plan and evaluate your care for the chosen case during the episode of care.
|What you need to do:||The 1800 word essay should include the points below:|
Introduction (approximately 100 words):
|Length:||1800 Words +/- 10% (including in text references and excluding reference list). Words in excess of this will not be marked.|
|Estimated time to complete task:||Approximately 30 hours|
|How will I be assessed:||7-point grading scale using a rubric|
Instructions for the assessment task:
|Learning outcomes assessed:|
TITLE OF THE ASSIGNMENT: ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN ABORIGINAL COMMUNITY IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Health is one of the most important developmental factors that a country focuses on. Also, it is one parameter that decides the fate of the country’s socio-economic development (Lauer et al. 2004). Before we begin with reading the assignment, I would like to clarify that the Aboriginal community and Torres Strait Islander people are different, but the indigenous Australians only. At some places, the Aboriginal Community may be represented as indigenous people altogether where their population is dominant but the Torres Strait Islander people would be quite less. In this assignment, I have chosen the alcoholic Aboriginal Community belonging to Western Australia as a population group. The total indigenous population of Australia stands as 798,400 persons as per the 2016 census; forming 3.3% of the total Australian population (ABS, 2016). Western Australia is the largest state of the country has a population of about 2.6 million, out of which nearly 3.1% belong to the indigenous Australians’ community; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. Concerning the total population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, nearly 13% live in Western Australia (ABS, 2016). As this assignment focuses on alcoholism among the Aboriginal community, it is worth noting that in 2018-19, the percentage of the indigenous population consuming alcohol stood at 18.4% (AIHW, 2020). However, it is critical to note that AIHSW’s National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) does record information on the general as well as indigenous population; the reliability of numbers concerning indigenous persons can vary (Claydon et al. 2016). This can be attributed to the fact that special protection is provided to the community, and non-interference in their lives along with language barriers, somehow restrict the officials to get the exact picture of the situation. In Western Australia, every four in five adult persons (forming nearly 82% of the population) consume alcohol, in 2019 (AIHW, 2020). This is a high number, undoubtedly. Though the percentage of the Aboriginal community residing in Western Australia is low, the statistics may cover their population as well. While the consumption of alcohol among adults is legal as per the Commonwealth and Western Australia’s State Laws, the increasing levels of consumption can lead to major health issues, the risk of chronic diseases increases, can cause social issues, lead to injury and even death in worst cases. The Aboriginal community’s population, once dominant on the island centuries back, stands miserably low at 3.3% (ABS, 2016). Thus, it becomes although more important to ensure their health and wellbeing, when alcoholism is one of the major causes of deteriorating health among people.
About the Indigenous Communities
The Aboriginal Australians are the indigenous people or the rightful residents who resided in Australia before the Europeans came and settled, in 1788. There were a lot of atrocities and massacres that took place against the indigenous Australians, which led to a drastic decline in their population. Widespread loss of loved ones among the community led to their isolation from main Australia, and they took shelter in tribal areas, where they started living miserable lives, to protect them (Rumsey, 1993). The health, social and economic status, education and other wellbeing sources were not available to them for a longer period, which deteriorated their condition, in comparison to the non-indigenous population. It took time for Australia to recognize the wrongdoings committed against the indigenous population, but once it was admitted, there have been sincere attempts to preserve and provide a decent livelihood to them. However, the problem does not end here. The isolation of the indigenous population from the rest of Australians has made them not comfortable amongst the non-indigenous people. They still bear the loss of ‘stolen generations’ and find it difficult to trust the non-indigenous people. The language barrier adds to the misery as even amongst the indigenous community, there are numerous languages spoken. However, in 2008, when the then Prime Minister Kevin Rudd apologized to the whole community of indigenous people, it sparked numerous emotions of pain, gratitude, empathy; that all the Australians welcomed (Povey et al. 2016). The indigenous people are referred to as the first Australians today.
The Strengths and Challenges within the Communities
The indigenous community, having the largest population of Aboriginals within it, is culturally rich and diverse. The familial ties within the community are quite complex to understand and offer a dynamic picture, that is not easier to find within the non-indigenous people. The traditional knowledge of the people concerning child-rearing, freedom to explore, the importance attached to familial ties and coping up with the challenges; reflect a different but rich hidden Australia, that was suppressed over the centuries (Rumsey, 1993). It reveals that in most respects, the community stands opposite to the other people in the country, which not just makes them special, but vulnerable too. In recent years, with growing discussions on the indigenous community of Australia, some traditions followed within the family have come to notice. There have been cases of family violence; especially against women. The males within the community are reported to be harsh and aggressive in their marital lives. The issues of child abuse have also been reported lately, which show us the challenges that the community is facing. It can be due to numerous reasons, and they may vary from one family to another. In 1989, the National Aboriginal Health Strategy Working Party reported that alcohol consumption can be attributed as one main reason for domestic violence and child abuse in indigenous families (AIFS, 2002).
Health Status of the Indigenous Population
While the rich and diverse culture of the Aboriginal communities is a notable factor, the recent study by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2021), shows that the likelihood of indigenous Australians experiencing the diseases is 2.3 times higher than that of the non-indigenous people. This shows the vulnerability of the community to health deterioration. The leading causes of disease burden on the indigenous community are mental and substance use disorders (19%), injuries including suicides (15%), cardiovascular diseases (12%), cancer (9.4%) and respiratory diseases (7.9%). Alcoholism has a role to play in elevating the seriousness of the diseases mentioned above, and sometimes, it is the leading cause also. In 2018-19, the most common reason for mental illness or behavioural conditions was anxiety; and it is important to note that females accounted for a higher percentage than men (AIHW, 2020). The World Health Organization (2020) recognizes that in Australia, nearly 36% of intimate partners homicide offenders were under the influence of alcohol while the crime took place. As we have already discussed above, the percentage of indigenous people involved in alcohol stands at 18.4%, there is a high likelihood that the majority of them are men. Also, the study shows that Aboriginal people in remote Western Australia are constant drinkers (Lee et al. 2019). That is why the need to consider their health has become quite important.
The indigenous peoples find it difficult to get appropriate access to healthcare due to various reasons. Their beliefs form an important element of their everyday life, as per which they find it difficult to trust the modern ways of healthcare. The mainstream healthcare institutions find it challenging to deal with the patients belonging to indigenous communities (Rix et al. 2015). While discrimination and racism can be counted as potent social factors to inequitable health service available to the indigenous communities, there are appropriate laws in place that regulate such attitudes. Moreover, in recent years, there have been improvements, at least in the healthcare and community services. Sometimes, the attitudes of the indigenous communities often form obstacles in the way of efficient health service delivery. This is relevant to note concerning the study that shows that Aboriginal people in remote Western Australia are constant drinkers (Lee et al. 2019). The indigenous people living in remote areas are often isolated from mainstream Australia. They find it even more difficult to access their health issues. Alcoholic consumption can a potent cause for many diseases, as already discussed above, and the impact of over-consumption can also lead to the issues of domestic violence against women and child abuse.
Other Important Factors
It is critical to learn the short-term and long-term impacts of constant alcohol consumption, which is prevalent in the indigenous communities residing in the remote areas of Western Australia. The consumption of alcohol has a direct bearing on the mind. Initial consumption allows individuals to relax. However, continuous alcohol consumption leads to intoxication, which leads to drowsiness, loss of consciousness, distortion of sense and perception. When the consumption level reaches a state when the person does not remain in his sense; the chances of involving in wrongdoings become high. Probably, that can be attributed as one of the reasons for domestic violence against women and child abuse. In contrast, the long-term impacts of alcohol consumption can lead to various health diseases, as already discussed above (AIHW, 2020). It is important to realise that when people (mostly men due to the constant consumption of alcohol) suffer from diseases, their economic opportunities are compromised. This has a direct influence on the livelihood of the entire family. Already, the economic opportunities for the indigenous communities are limited, this further makes things worse. Moreover, the children are not able to continue with their education, if such a financial crisis deepens. The overall well-being of the families comes under threat if the issues are not resolved in time.
Some recommendations can help in improving the conditions of the Aboriginal community concerning alcohol consumption:
This assignment offered a multi-dimensional picture of the current status of the Aboriginal community, and how they are impacted due to alcohol consumption. The statistics helped us understand the current situations and offered me the opportunity to analyse the impacts; both in the short-term and long-term. The constant alcohol consumption by the indigenous community; mostly the Aboriginal community, in remote Western Australia, is a grave concern that is hard to miss, to ensure their social-economic and health wellbeing. In the end, the recommendations were drawn considering the key stakeholders that are responsible for the community’s welfare. It is sincerely hoped that the correct approach along with active participation from the indigenous community can help resolve the issue of constant alcohol consumption in Australia.