Alcohol Consumption In Aboriginal Community In Western Australia Homework Answer

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Question :

NSB 231 Integrated Nursing Practice 2 – On Campus ASSESSMENT TASK 

Assessment Task 2

Assessment name:Case Study: Nursing Priorities
Task description:1. For this essay you are required to select ONE (1) case option:
  • Option 1: adolescent case or
  • Option 2: adult case.
Outlines for case options are available on the Blackboard site under Assessment 2 tab.
Carefully review your chosen case and apply your knowledge of evidence-based nursing practice to plan person-centred care.
Using the clinical reasoning cycle as a framework, you are required to assess, plan and evaluate your care for the chosen case during the episode of care.
  1. From the chosen case identify and discuss TWO (2) current problems which are directly impacting on the patients’ health.
  2. For each current problem, identify and discuss TWO (2) interventions (collaborative or independent).
Note: One (1) intervention in the essay must be entirely nursing led and initiated. When discussing collaborative interventions, you must focus on the role of the nurse in that intervention.
  1. Discuss how you would evaluate the effectiveness for each intervention.
  2. Support and justify the essay using peer reviewed, current and relevant evidence from valid reference sources.
What you need to do:The 1800 word essay should include the points below:
Introduction (approximately 100 words):
  • Give an overview of the chosen case’s condition and identify your TWO ( 2 ) current problems.
Body (approximately 800 words for each problem):
  • Establish how the assessment data led you to identify your TWO
(2) current problems. In doing so you must demonstrate your understanding of the relevant pathophysiology that explains the link between each chosen problem and the case’s relevant assessment data. Support /justify the current problems using peer reviewed, current and relevant evidence (a minimum of 4 valid, contemporary references from 2014 onwards for each current problem).
  • For each problem identify TWO (2) interventions aimed at resolving the problem.
  • Justify the interventions you will implement (explain what is involved in implementing the intervention, why it is suitable, any special considerations relevant to the case or situation) and support /justify using peer reviewed, current and relevant evidence (a minimum of 4 valid, contemporary references from 2014 onwards for each intervention).

  • Outline the expected evaluation criteria/data and discuss how you would determine that each intervention is improving or resolving the identified problem. Support /justify using peer reviewed, current and relevant evidence (valid, contemporary references from 2014 onwards).
Conclusion (approximately 100 words):
  • Briefly restate the overall case and how your interventions can improve the patient’s current problems and benefit health.
The following points must also be addressed in your work:
  1. You need to discuss at least ONE (1) independent nurse initiated intervention in your essay.
  2. For any collaborative interventions you must discuss the nursing responsibilities and actions in relation to this collaborative intervention.
  3. Prescribed therapies cannot be both of your chosen collaborative interventions for a problem. If a prescribed therapy is ONE ( 1 ) of your collaborative interventions, you must consider and discuss the relevant nursing responsibilities associated with the therapy i.e. action, dose, side effects (prevention and management of administration requirements and evaluation of effect).
Note: Intravenous fluids and oxygen are both considered prescribed therapies.
Length:1800 Words +/- 10% (including in text references and excluding reference list). Words in excess of this will not be marked.
Estimated time to complete task:Approximately 30 hours
How will I be assessed:7-point grading scale using a rubric
Presentation requirements:
Instructions for the assessment task:
  • Submitted in electronic format as a Word document via Turnitin, formatted as below with a cover sheet that includes the following information:
    • Subject
    • Title of essay
    • Name
    • Student number
    • Word count
    • Due date

  • Formatting needs to include the following:
    • A ‘footer’ on each page with your name, student number, unit code and page number.
    • 3 cm margins (normal) on all sides
    • Times new roman, font size 12
    • Double spaced text
    • Do not include headings in your work e.g. “Introduction”
  • Use QUT APA Referencing.
  • You MUST include the page number or page range that indicates where you located the evidence or synthesized the evidence to support your key point in the citation. Failure to do this will result in a reduced grade in the rubric. Note: markers will be checking references to see that you have accurately represented the source.
  • Contain a minimum of 16 peer reviewed, current and relevant evidence (valid, contemporary references from 2014 onwards) from journal articles with the addition of textbooks as appropriate.
Learning outcomes assessed:
  1. Apply and integrate knowledge of the key NMBA Registered Nurse Standards for Nursing Practice, National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards, and National Health Priorities to enable effective clinical decision making, planning and action in a range of situations that reflect the diversity of contemporary health care settings and challenges.
  2. Apply knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology to support evidence-based decisions for planning and action in a range of clinical situations.
  3. Demonstrate clinical reasoning and clinical decision making in line with safe and quality person-centred care across the lifespan.
  4. Apply knowledge and skills to communicate and collaborate effectively with consumers and families.
  5. Reflect on the nurse role in care provision, using feedback from a range of sources, to identify opportunities to enhance individual practice.

  • Include peer reviewed, current and relevant evidence (valid, contemporary references from 2014 onwards) from journal articles for the majority of the supporting evidence.

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Answer :



Health is one of the most important developmental factors that a country focuses on. Also, it is one parameter that decides the fate of the country’s socio-economic development (Lauer et al. 2004). Before we begin with reading the assignment, I would like to clarify that the Aboriginal community and Torres Strait Islander people are different, but the indigenous Australians only. At some places, the Aboriginal Community may be represented as indigenous people altogether where their population is dominant but the Torres Strait Islander people would be quite less. In this assignment, I have chosen the alcoholic Aboriginal Community belonging to Western Australia as a population group. The total indigenous population of Australia stands as 798,400 persons as per the 2016 census; forming 3.3% of the total Australian population (ABS, 2016). Western Australia is the largest state of the country has a population of about 2.6 million, out of which nearly 3.1% belong to the indigenous Australians’ community; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. Concerning the total population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, nearly 13% live in Western Australia (ABS, 2016). As this assignment focuses on alcoholism among the Aboriginal community, it is worth noting that in 2018-19, the percentage of the indigenous population consuming alcohol stood at 18.4% (AIHW, 2020). However, it is critical to note that AIHSW’s National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) does record information on the general as well as indigenous population; the reliability of numbers concerning indigenous persons can vary (Claydon et al. 2016). This can be attributed to the fact that special protection is provided to the community, and non-interference in their lives along with language barriers, somehow restrict the officials to get the exact picture of the situation. In Western Australia, every four in five adult persons (forming nearly 82% of the population) consume alcohol, in 2019 (AIHW, 2020). This is a high number, undoubtedly. Though the percentage of the Aboriginal community residing in Western Australia is low, the statistics may cover their population as well. While the consumption of alcohol among adults is legal as per the Commonwealth and Western Australia’s State Laws, the increasing levels of consumption can lead to major health issues, the risk of chronic diseases increases, can cause social issues, lead to injury and even death in worst cases. The Aboriginal community’s population, once dominant on the island centuries back, stands miserably low at 3.3% (ABS, 2016). Thus, it becomes although more important to ensure their health and wellbeing, when alcoholism is one of the major causes of deteriorating health among people. 


About the Indigenous Communities

The Aboriginal Australians are the indigenous people or the rightful residents who resided in Australia before the Europeans came and settled, in 1788. There were a lot of atrocities and massacres that took place against the indigenous Australians, which led to a drastic decline in their population. Widespread loss of loved ones among the community led to their isolation from main Australia, and they took shelter in tribal areas, where they started living miserable lives, to protect them (Rumsey, 1993). The health, social and economic status, education and other wellbeing sources were not available to them for a longer period, which deteriorated their condition, in comparison to the non-indigenous population. It took time for Australia to recognize the wrongdoings committed against the indigenous population, but once it was admitted, there have been sincere attempts to preserve and provide a decent livelihood to them. However, the problem does not end here. The isolation of the indigenous population from the rest of Australians has made them not comfortable amongst the non-indigenous people. They still bear the loss of ‘stolen generations’ and find it difficult to trust the non-indigenous people. The language barrier adds to the misery as even amongst the indigenous community, there are numerous languages spoken. However, in 2008, when the then Prime Minister Kevin Rudd apologized to the whole community of indigenous people, it sparked numerous emotions of pain, gratitude, empathy; that all the Australians welcomed (Povey et al. 2016). The indigenous people are referred to as the first Australians today.

 The Strengths and Challenges within the Communities

The indigenous community, having the largest population of Aboriginals within it, is culturally rich and diverse. The familial ties within the community are quite complex to understand and offer a dynamic picture, that is not easier to find within the non-indigenous people. The traditional knowledge of the people concerning child-rearing, freedom to explore, the importance attached to familial ties and coping up with the challenges; reflect a different but rich hidden Australia, that was suppressed over the centuries (Rumsey, 1993). It reveals that in most respects, the community stands opposite to the other people in the country, which not just makes them special, but vulnerable too. In recent years, with growing discussions on the indigenous community of Australia, some traditions followed within the family have come to notice. There have been cases of family violence; especially against women. The males within the community are reported to be harsh and aggressive in their marital lives. The issues of child abuse have also been reported lately, which show us the challenges that the community is facing. It can be due to numerous reasons, and they may vary from one family to another. In 1989, the National Aboriginal Health Strategy Working Party reported that alcohol consumption can be attributed as one main reason for domestic violence and child abuse in indigenous families (AIFS, 2002).

 Health Status of the Indigenous Population

While the rich and diverse culture of the Aboriginal communities is a notable factor, the recent study by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2021), shows that the likelihood of indigenous Australians experiencing the diseases is 2.3 times higher than that of the non-indigenous people. This shows the vulnerability of the community to health deterioration. The leading causes of disease burden on the indigenous community are mental and substance use disorders (19%), injuries including suicides (15%), cardiovascular diseases (12%), cancer (9.4%) and respiratory diseases (7.9%). Alcoholism has a role to play in elevating the seriousness of the diseases mentioned above, and sometimes, it is the leading cause also. In 2018-19, the most common reason for mental illness or behavioural conditions was anxiety; and it is important to note that females accounted for a higher percentage than men (AIHW, 2020). The World Health Organization (2020) recognizes that in Australia, nearly 36% of intimate partners homicide offenders were under the influence of alcohol while the crime took place. As we have already discussed above, the percentage of indigenous people involved in alcohol stands at 18.4%, there is a high likelihood that the majority of them are men. Also, the study shows that Aboriginal people in remote Western Australia are constant drinkers (Lee et al. 2019). That is why the need to consider their health has become quite important.  

 The indigenous peoples find it difficult to get appropriate access to healthcare due to various reasons. Their beliefs form an important element of their everyday life, as per which they find it difficult to trust the modern ways of healthcare. The mainstream healthcare institutions find it challenging to deal with the patients belonging to indigenous communities (Rix et al. 2015). While discrimination and racism can be counted as potent social factors to inequitable health service available to the indigenous communities, there are appropriate laws in place that regulate such attitudes. Moreover, in recent years, there have been improvements, at least in the healthcare and community services. Sometimes, the attitudes of the indigenous communities often form obstacles in the way of efficient health service delivery. This is relevant to note concerning the study that shows that Aboriginal people in remote Western Australia are constant drinkers (Lee et al. 2019). The indigenous people living in remote areas are often isolated from mainstream Australia. They find it even more difficult to access their health issues. Alcoholic consumption can a potent cause for many diseases, as already discussed above, and the impact of over-consumption can also lead to the issues of domestic violence against women and child abuse. 

 Other Important Factors

It is critical to learn the short-term and long-term impacts of constant alcohol consumption, which is prevalent in the indigenous communities residing in the remote areas of Western Australia. The consumption of alcohol has a direct bearing on the mind. Initial consumption allows individuals to relax. However, continuous alcohol consumption leads to intoxication, which leads to drowsiness, loss of consciousness, distortion of sense and perception. When the consumption level reaches a state when the person does not remain in his sense; the chances of involving in wrongdoings become high. Probably, that can be attributed as one of the reasons for domestic violence against women and child abuse. In contrast, the long-term impacts of alcohol consumption can lead to various health diseases, as already discussed above (AIHW, 2020). It is important to realise that when people (mostly men due to the constant consumption of alcohol) suffer from diseases, their economic opportunities are compromised. This has a direct influence on the livelihood of the entire family. Already, the economic opportunities for the indigenous communities are limited, this further makes things worse. Moreover, the children are not able to continue with their education, if such a financial crisis deepens. The overall well-being of the families comes under threat if the issues are not resolved in time.      


Some recommendations can help in improving the conditions of the Aboriginal community concerning alcohol consumption:

  1. As discussed in the beginning, the AIHSW’s National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) does record information on the general as well as the indigenous population; the reliability of numbers concerning indigenous persons can vary (Claydon et al. 2016). In that case, the use of best practice tool; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), also recommended by the World Health Organization in 1989, must be done actively, to identify the actual patterns of drinking among the Aboriginal Communities living in the entire Western Australia. It can offer a wider picture, as to how the situation can be dealt with, considering all the important socio-economic factors (Cusack et al. 2020).
  2. There must be widespread awareness programs that must be held by the healthcare and community care services, in collaboration; to connect with the indigenous people, convey to them, the risks, short-term and long-term impacts on their health. The intention should also be to enhance the trust level among the communities, which often find it difficult to access healthcare services, due to some beliefs and perceptions (Rix et al. 2015). 
  3. There must be an attempt made by the Federal Government to recognize the people who lost their livelihood opportunities due to such menace. Some financial support must be provided to the families who suffered the financial crisis and still are not able to cope up with that.
  4. The rehabilitation centres across the Federal State must focus specifically on the people within the communities that are either suffering from constant alcohol consumption and have become addicted. 
  5. The women who either suffer or are still suffering from domestic violence and the children who have undergone child abuse must be rescued by the Australian National Human Rights Commission, and thus, must be taken care of. 


This assignment offered a multi-dimensional picture of the current status of the Aboriginal community, and how they are impacted due to alcohol consumption. The statistics helped us understand the current situations and offered me the opportunity to analyse the impacts; both in the short-term and long-term. The constant alcohol consumption by the indigenous community; mostly the Aboriginal community, in remote Western Australia, is a grave concern that is hard to miss, to ensure their social-economic and health wellbeing. In the end, the recommendations were drawn considering the key stakeholders that are responsible for the community’s welfare. It is sincerely hoped that the correct approach along with active participation from the indigenous community can help resolve the issue of constant alcohol consumption in Australia.