**What is an algorithm?**

An algorithm is a logical step-by-step procedure for solving a specific problem. An algorithm is a set of sequential steps which are used to solve any specific problem. These steps are normally written in pseudocode or as a flowchart. Inspecting various ways of solving a problem can assist you to find the best method to solve it.

An algorithm should be design in such a way that solve a problem efficiently in less time and space

The main important feature of an algorithm design contains generating an efficient algorithm to solve a problem in a well-organized way using least time and space.

**Algorithm:**

1) Design:

- Divide and conquer approach

- The greedy method

- Dynamic programming

- Backtracking

- Branch and bound and many more

2) Analysis

- Time complexity

- Space complexity

An algorithm is that procedure that generates the solution to a question or the response to a problem in a limited number of steps. An algorithm generates answer either yes or no. An algorithm that generates a yes or no answer is known as a decision procedure; one that shows to a result is a computation procedure.

**Examples of an algorithm:**

There are so many real life and computer science examples available, such as making tea, making banana shake, pack a bag etc.- these are real life examples. Find the smallest and largest number from an unsorted list etc.- these are computer science examples.

To find the largest number in an unsorted list of numbers would be very simple example of an algorithm. If a list of six different numbers are given, you find this in no time and no computer needed.

**Steps in an Algorithm Development Process:**

- Step 1: This step is much more hard. To gain a description of the problem is difficult process.
- Step 2: Explore the problem.
- Step 3: Generate a high-level algorithm.
- Step 4: Rectify the algorithm by including more information.
- Step 5: Analyze the algorithm.

**Algorithm Design Techniques in Data Structures:**

There are many techniques used in algorithm design which are as follows-

- Greedy algorithm- A greedy algorithm is basically used to solve adequate problems.
- Branch and Bound Algorithm- Branch and bound is an algorithm design technique for separate and connective optimization problems.
- Dynamic Programming algorithm-Dynamic Programming is an algorithmic technique for solving an optimal problem by breaking it into simple parts that the optimal solution is found.
- Randomized Algorithm- A randomized algorithm is an algorithm that uses a degree of randomness in its logic or system.
- Divide and Conquer algorithm- In divide and conquer technique a problem is divided into smaller parts and then each part is solved separately.
- Recursive algorithm- A recursive algorithm is an algorithm which calls smaller input values itself.
- Brute Force algorithm.
- Backtracking algorithm.

**Characteristics of ****algorithm design:**

There are some characteristics which should follow by every algorithm. They are given as follows:

- Input stated.
- Output stated.
- Accuracy(Precision)
- Responsiveness.
- Definite (Finiteness)
- Self-made(independent).
- Distinctiveness (Uniqueness )

**Advantages of ****algorithm design:**

Some advantages of algorithm design** **are as follows:

- It is a step by step way to produce solution to a given problem so it is easy to understand by everyone.
- An algorithm uses a limited number of steps.
- It is self-made means independent. It is not dependent on any programming language, so without any programming knowledge it is easy to understand for anyone.
- Every step in an algorithm has its own logical order so each step can be rectify easily .
- The problem is divided into smaller parts or steps so, it is simple for programmer to turn these steps into an actual program by using algorithm.

**Disadvantages of Algorithms:**

1. Time consuming: Algorithm is time taking process. It takes too much time in building algorithms.

2. It is Difficult to display repetitions (Branching and Looping) in Algorithms.

3. In Algorithms, large functions are difficult to place.

**Difference between algorithm and program:**

Algorithms: | Program: |

- An algorithm is a before construct a machine in software engineering - To write an algorithm, person has respective domain knowledge. - Algorithm are fully independent on hardware and operating system. - Algorithms can be written in any language like english, hindi french, chinese etc - We use the analyze technique to check the logics (bug or error) in any algorithms. | - After get design, we need to implement codes to build the machine in software engineering - To write the programming codes, we need to programmers. - Programs are fully dependent on hardware and operting system. - Program can be written in any programming language like c, c++, java, c#, php, python etc. - We use the testing techniques to check the bug or error in any programming language. |

**Difference algorithm as well as flowchart:**

Algorithm: | Flowchart: |

- It's procedure with regard to resolving difficulties - The procedure is actually shown within step-by-step instruction. - It's complicated as well as hard to understand - It's handy in order to debug errors. - The perfect solution is show throughout in natural language. - It's fairly simpler to resolve complicated problem | - It's graphic representation of the procedure. - The procedure is actually shown within block by block information diagram - It's user-friendly as well as clear to understand - It's difficult in order to debug errors. - The perfect solution is show throughout in pictorial format. - It's difficult to resolve complicated problem. |

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