Object Oriented Programming Homework Help


What is an Object Oriented Programming(OOP) ?

Object Oriented programming (OOP) is a programming pattern that depends on the concept of classes and objects. 

Before studying object oriented programming we should know about an object and class.

Class - A class is a user-specified datatype that has its own data members and member functions.

Object - An object is an identity of class by which we can obtain(acquire) the data members and member functions of the class.

For example - We can take many real life examples such as, a table is an object. The table has its own properties, such as weight and color, and methods. A Class is used to create objects so it is also known as object constructor. So every real life thing(item) is an object and every object has its own properties.

Class is use to call objects inside it.

An Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming model or pattern focused on the concept of "objects and class", which can hold data and code: data in the order of areas (generally called as attributes or properties), and code, in the order of procedures (generally called as methods).

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a method of programming identifies by the understanding of classes of objects firmly associated with the methods (functions) with which they are related. It also covers the concept of inheritance of attributes and methods.


Object Oriented Programming examples: -

Java, C++, C#, Python and Java script are object-oriented programming languages. The easiest method to describe object-orientated programming to a child is to use something like a bike as an example. A bike has a model name, a colour, a year in which it was make, an engine size and so on.


Fundamental concepts/ features of object-oriented programming: -

There are four main concepts(features) of Object-oriented programming. Theses are as follows :

1) Inheritance, 2) Encapsulation, 3) Polymorphism, 4) Data abstraction.

  1. Inheritance : In inheritance, one class acquires the properties of another class. Means the properties of one class are inherited to another class. For example: in real life the properties of parents are inherited to their children. There are many types of inheritance available. These are- Single inheritance, Multiple inheritance, Hybrid inheritance, Multilevel inheritance, and Hierarchical inheritance
  2. Encapsulation : It is a method to bind together data and the code. It wraps(enclose) data in a single unit.
  3. Polymorphism : Polymorphism refers one name and many forms.
  4. Data abstraction : Data abstraction means hiding data. It shows only important data and hide background details. It is used to reduce the code. The best example of data abstraction is a switchboard. It shows only switch ON/OFF and hides the details of circuitry.     

OOP language is used to divide the program into small parts or modules and each sub part can be solved easily. It solves one part(module) at a time and all are solved individually. The new technology assures better quality of software, higher programmer capacity, and minimum maintenance cost. OOP systems can be quickly customize from small to large systems.


Advantages of object-oriented programming: -

Object oriented programming advantages are as follows.

  • Re-usability facility - It means there is no need to build them again and again. It provides reusing facility.
  • Polymorphism Flexibility(elasticity)
  • Easy troubleshooting - It provides easy correction of errors.
  • Design Benefits.
  • Data Redundancy.
  • Code Maintenance. 
  • Security.
  • High productivity.


Drawbacks of object-oriented programming: -

The drawbacks of object oriented programming are as follows.

  • Incapable / inefficient: - Object-oriented programming suppose to use more CPU than other options so sometimes it can be inefficient.
  • Duplication: - It can produce a copy of data (duplicate data). It is not good for a system because data is increased and take more memory space.
  • Extensible: - It can create a huge enormous amount of expanded, useless data if OOP is left to run out of control. So it can be too adaptable.


Reason for Object Oriented analysis and also layout: -

- Determine item associated with program

- Determine their relationship

- Create a design that may be transformed into executables utilizing object oriented languages.

    Object oriented analysis -> Object oriented design -> Object oriented implementation using object oriented languages


Difference between object oriented programming and procedure oriented   programming: -

Object Oriented Programming:   -Procedure Oriented Programming: -
- Bottom up approach throughout software design and style. 
- Public, private, protected access specifiers are widely-used. instance: in class classData is  private and functions are public,
- Data is private as well as functions   inside class can only access the private data 
-  Instance associated with oop is c++, c#, java and so on
- Within oop operator could be full using the idea operator overloading
- Significance is actually directed at the data.
- Objects (i.e. data as well as functions) are extremely simple to include anytime whenever required
 - Non procedural in nature

- Top down approach in program design
- No access specifiers are widely-used.   instance: in structure all of the members are public
- Bigger applications tend to be split in to functions.
- The majority of the functions share global data indicates data proceed freely around the system in one function to a different function. 
- Such as, POP is C, FORTRAN
- In POP operator cannot overloaded
- Emphasis on doing algorithm means importance is usually provided to this sequence of thing to be done such as, algorithm
- Objects usually are many   complicated to add in POP
- Procedural in nature.


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