Microprocessor Homework Help


It is a semiconductor micro-sized chip laid on a motherboard, that is used to execute arithmetic and logical operations and produce a suitable output. The basic task of a Microprocessor is to:

  1. Fetch - It fetches the programs and data stored in memory.
  2. Decode - understanding the op code or operational code.
  3. Execute - After the operations are being performed it produces output. You can check out The Hardware Topics channel on YouTube, here many useful videos on mp8085 is provided.

It is a device or rather says an integrated chip that processes some instructions given to it in microseconds. So it got the name microprocessor.
To transfer the data inside the chip from one place to another it has a bus system just like our buses to move the people to different places in a city.
Here inside the bus, some people are data or some address and the bus is thus bifurcated into two names address bus and data bus.

The 8085 is essentially an 8080A — Intel’s first popular 8-bit CPU and the heart of early microcomputers like the Mits Altair 8800 — with a couple of non-maskable interrupts added. It’s still used quite frequently in industrial control applications, like CNC machines, programmable routers, etc.


The size of a microprocessor 8085:

The size of 8085 is 8 bit. It means it can process 8-bit at any point in time.

It performs ALU operation and is integrated into the chip.

Now depending upon the microcomputer the Word Length can vary from 4-bit to 32-bit and can be extended to 64-bit.

Data Bus =8-bit

Address bus =16-bit

Program counter=16-bit

Stack pointer = 16-bit

Few 8-bit registers are B , C , D , E , H , L ,,,, and the ACCUMULATOR again 8-bit register.

The register is arranged in pairs to be operated BC , DE , HL.


The difference between a microprocessor and a microcontroller:

The following are some differences between a Microcontroller & Microprocessor:

Microcontrollers include RAM (and usually ROM), and microprocessors don’t (or they may only have cache).

Microcontrollers tend to have more peripherals - timers, IO transceivers, ADCs, DMA controllers, etc, and microprocessors tend to just be a CPU.

1) Architecture: Microprocessor is just a CPU ( i.e composed of Control Unit, Register Pairs & some special registers) On the other hand Microcontroller have CPU, Memory & other peripheral Interfaces.

2) Timers and Counters: In Microprocessor there are no Timers and Counters While they are present in Microcontroller.

3) Functionality: Microcontrollers are made to perform a specific function while Microprocessor is bit kind of general in terms of their functionality i.e they can use to perform different functions.

4) Cost: Microcontroller is far cheaper than Microprocessor.

5) Purpose: Microcontroller is developed to perform small and dedicated applications and Microprocessor is developed to perform complex and multiple task based applications.

6) Speed: Microcontrollers has the speed in MHz frequency whereas Microprocessors has the speed range from MHz to GHz, so comparatively Microprocessors are faster than Microcontrollers.

7) Memory: Microcontrollers has their own memory whereas Microcontrollers doesn’t have their own memory.

8) Firmware: Programming or Firmware can be developed in Microcontrollers easily but comes with certain limitations whereas in Microprocessors, little complex but can perform multithreaded applications through building operating system also.

9) In Micro-controller all hardware like RAM, ROM ,External memory with all other peripherals are embedded on a single chip but In microprocessor hardware are connected externally , It comes only with CPU.

10) Processing speed of Micro-processor are faster than Micro-controller .

11) Micro-processor are more efficient than Micro-controllers.

12) Micro-controller are designed to perform specific task like keyboard , fridge, washing machine , air conditioner etc but Micro-processors are used where the task is not defined like developing software, game , websites etc.

13) Micro-controller is far cheaper than micro-processor.


Does the Arduino Uno use a microprocessor or a microcontroller?

The Arduino Uno uses a microcontroller. In fact, many learners are confused with the term Microcontroller and Microprocessor. In a microcontroller, all hardware like RAM, ROM, and External memory with all other peripherals are embedded on a single chip but In a microprocessor, hardware is connected externally, It comes only with the CPU.

Usually, we refer to microcontrollers as low-powered devices (Or a low-powered computer) which may be powered by a low-powered processor (e.g. an 8-bit or 16-bit processor), while microprocessors are referred to as the CPU (or brain) of a computer.


How do microprocessors work?

The microprocessor is a programmable digital integrated circuit used to receive binary information and process them according to the instructions providing the result in binary that can easily be read out by the output peripherals.

A microprocessor or CPU (central processing unit) is a single computer chip that can perform at least the following tasks:

  • Execute instructions stored in external memory;
  • Read data from external memory;
  • Write data to external memory;
  • Perform calculations on data (at least add, subtract, bit-wise operations).

the main difference with microcontrollers is that they often have memory internal to the chip, as well as a number of embedded peripherals.

The term “micro” in microprocessors is legacy: in the 1960s, processors (or processing units) were multi-chip computer boards, often more than one board, and could thus be as large as a filing cabinet.


Types of microprocessors:

There are basically five different types of Microprocessors which has been designed yet:

  1. GPU (Graphics Processing Unit)
  2. DSP (Digital Signal Processor)
  3. Microcontrollers
  4. VPU (Vision Processing Unit)
  5. SOC (System on Chip, which is referred to as one or more cores of Microprocessors and Microcontrollers)


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