Computer Architecture Homework Help


What do you mean by computer architecture ?

In computer science, computer architecture defines the design and working of computer systems by collection of rules and techniques that represent the working performance, operations, and implementation. In short, computer architecture represents to how a computer system is created and which technologies are agreeable and consistent with it.

Computer architecture is specially describes how a set of software and hardware technology standards interrelate or interacts to build a computer system or platform. 

Some other explanations of computer architecture explain it as defining the capacities and programming framework of a computer.

Computer architecture includes a collection of rules and methods which describes the implementation and working of the computer systems. We can describe computer architecture depends on its value or price, capability, trustability, and performance of the computer system. It assigns with or depends on software and hardware technology standards.

Components of computer architecture: -

The main components of the Computer System Architecture are Input Unit, CPU(Central Processing Unit), Output Unit and Storage Unit. A diagram that represents the flow of data between these units is as follows – 

The input data moves from input unit to CPU. In this architecture input data is taken from the input devices such as keyboard and mouse, then this input data goes to CPU for processing and after processing the output(result) is generated and in last result is stored in memory (storage devices).

CPU is the most important component of computer architecture because it does all the processing so it is also known as the brain of the computer.

CPU is classified into three parts: -

  1. ALU (Arithmetic and Logical Unit)
  2. CU (Control Unit)
  3. MU (Memory Unit)

ALU performs all mathematical calculations.


Examples of computer architectures: -

  • Intel and AMD made the x86.
  • Microsystems and others made The SPARC .
  • Apple, IBM, and Motorola made The PowerPC.


Layers of the computer architecture: -

Computer architecture layers are as follows:

  1. The hardware 
  2. Operating system 
  3. Software and 
  4. User layers.

Operating system also known as system software, is the main element of the computer. Without an operating system a computer can not be work.


Elements of computer architecture: -

There are three main elements of computer architecture. These elements are as follows: -

  1. Input and output devices 
  2. Internal devices and 
  3. How computer performs task. 

Types of computer architecture: -


 There are three types of computer architecture, and all work together to make a machine work.

  1. System design- System design contains all hardware parts of a computer such as memory, controllers, data processors, multiprocessors, and direct memory access. 
  2. Instruction set architecture (ISA) - This system depends on instruction set. Instruction set may be single or multiple.
  3. Microarchitecture - This is the fundamental design of a computer architecture. It refers to the technologies, resources and methods used in architecture.


Advantages of Computer architecture: -

  • Multitasking – Multitasking is one among the main advantage of computer. It can perform more than one task at a same time.
  • Tireless: It can work 24*7 without getting tired.
  • Automatic. A computer works by itself without human interference. 
  • High/fast Speed 
  • Reliability - It is more reliable than humans.
  • Versatility
  • Cost/ Stores huge 
  • High Accuracy - It produces 0 errors means it works without any mistake.
  • Data Security - Data can be secure by means of password.
  • Task completer
  • Communication
  • High Productivity 
  • Diligence. 
  • Power of Remembering- It can store a large amount of data in its memory for future use.


Disadvantages of a computer architecture:

  • Too much sitting. 
  • Can reduce jobs. 
  • Potential loss of privacy.
  • No feelings and emotions
  • Produce eye strain. 
  • Creates lots of distractions. 
  • Increases waste and crash the environment.


Difference between computer architecture as well as computer organization: 

Computer Architecture:Computer Organization:
- Determine attributes associated with system which are noticeable towards the user.
- Attributes includes-
   - Number associated with bits within architecture 
   - Instruction collection
   - Memory technologies
   - Input output system and so on.
- Basic computer architecture continues to be exact same for several years.
eg. IBM PC architecture,  apple Mac architecture
- Define set of operational units and their interconnection.
- It provides hardware specifics (that are generally clear towards the user) like control signals, interfacing techniques, details of control unit design etc.
- Computer organization deals with the method of implementing multiply instruction (can be implemented by using a dedicated multiplier or by using repetitive additions)
- Each basic architecture might have numerous organization models along with various cost as well as overall performance features.


Computer structure and functions: -

Structure- defines the way how various components are interconnected / interfaced

Function - defines the operation of each component of a computer system. 


Function of computer system:

- Data processing: - computer processes data in the ALU section of CPU

- Data storage: - data to be processed is stored on secondary storage devices such as hard disk, floppy disk, CD-ROM etc. 

- Data movement: - computer can move data between secondary storage devices and main memory or from external devices to internal components of computers.

- Control: - it is responsible for generation of control signals used internal to CPU or controlling externally connected devices to the CPU.

Structural view of a computer - computer system is observed in a hierarchical manner.

There are 3 level in structural view i.e;

- Computer - top level structure

- CPU level structure

- CU level structure


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