C Homework Help


What is C Programming?

C is a powerful, general-purpose and the most widely used programming language. It can be used to develop software like databases,operating systems such as UNIX, compilers, and so on that directly interact with the hardware devices such as drivers, kernels, etc. The C Language was launched by Dennis Ritchie in 1972 at the Bell Telephone Laboratories

C programming language is an excellent choice for beginners to learn and to program .C programming is also known as mother language because it is considered as the base for other programming languages. 

It can be defined as following :

  1. It as also known as Mother language
  2. Intermediate or Mid-level programming language
  3. System programming language
  4. Structured programming language
  5. Procedure-oriented programming language


The C programming language was basically developed as a language to convert assembler in systems programming. C started to develop in popularity not only for systems programming, but as a general purpose programming language as well. It was very outstanding to generate system code portable,flexible,simple and easier to write and read. As we know every programming language has its own advantages and disadvantages as well similarly C language has very big problem that is- it can not be used in web applications like PHP,Java etc. Since now a days almost all applications are designed for Internet or web but it is not used for web applications.

Why to Learn C Programming?

C programming language is very important for students and office going persons to become a great Software Engineer specially when they are working in Software Development field. Here are some of the main advantages of learning C Programming:

  1. Easy to learn
  2. Structured language
  3. It produces systematic programs
  4. It can control low-level tasks
  5. It can be assembled on a different types of computer platforms

 

Features of C Programming Language:

  1. Procedural Language.
  2. Powerful, Simple, fast and Efficient - It is easy to learn
  3. Machine Independent or Portable 
  4. Compatible
  5. Extensible
  6. Less memory use
  7. Built-in functions.
  8. Portable language


Facts about C

  1. An operating system called UNIX was written by C Programming.
  2. The UNIX OS (operating system)was completely written in C.
  3. C language was standardize in 1988 by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI).
  4. C is a next new version of B language which was initiated around the early 1970s.
  5. Now a days C is the most widely used and famous System Programming Language.
  6. Most of the modern software have been executed using C.

 

What are the disadvantages of C language?

  1. No Garbage Collection.
  2. Shortage Lack of Object Orientation.
  3. No efficient Memory Management. 
  4. Absence of Exception Handling.
  5. Run-time checking is required 
  6. Namespace concept is not present in C. 
  7. Self quality extend . 
  8. Absence of Constructor and Destructor

 

Programming in C:-
First of all open the C console to write the first c program and write code:

  1. #include <stdio. h>
  2. int main(){
  3. printf("I love my mother. My mother is my life");
  4. return 0;
  5. }

   So as an output it will print I love my mother. My mother is my life on the screen.

#include <stdio.h>-- includes the standard input output files with library functions. The printf() function is defined inside stdio.h .

int main() --The main() function is the stating point of every program in c language.

printf()-- The printf() function is used to print result on the console.

return 0-- The return 0 statement, returns execution status to the Operating System. The 0 value is used for successful execution means task is completed and 1 for unsuccessful execution means task is not completed it has errors.


 

Language Standards:

1) at first, there was no particular standard from c.

2) the first edition of C programming language official standard.

3) 'C reference standard' in appendix of the book acted as guide to C implementations.


 

ANSI/ISO C standard:

American national standard institute (ANSI) established committee in 1983 to develop a standard adopted in 1989

- ANSI C standard defined C language and its library

- International standard organization (ISO) adopted a C standard (ISO C) in 1990

- People often use ANSI C term for C standard final version of ANSI/ISO C was called as C90


 

C99 standard:

In 1994 , ANSI/ISO committee called C9x committee revised the standard resulted in C99 standard.

- Intent was to meet new goal

- Other goals- coding existing practice to address evident deficiencies

- Third goal - improve suitable of C for doing critical calculation

- C99 preserved clean, efficient nature of c 

- Not all compilers fully implemented C99 changes

 

C11 Standard:

In 2007, next revision was made C1x committee revision standard to C11.

- As C99 was not supported as much as C90 so same features of C99 become optional for C11.

- Addition of support for concurrent programming.


 

Using C : steps ->


1) Define the program objective- you should have idea that what you want your program to do.

2) Layout program - after having a picture about what your program will do, decide how your program will go?

3) Now you have designed program, you begin to implement using code, you translate program into C language.

source code- a text editor is used to write a program and the code of program is source code.

4) Compile: next step is to compile code. compiler converter source to executable code.

Executable-code- the machine language code(in numeric code)

if compiler finds an error in your code, it return error report instead of the executable file.

5) Run: executable file is usually a program that one could run.

Common environments to run program-

- CMD in windows

- Terminal mode in UNIX, Linux

Integrated development environment: IDEs for windows and MAC environment helps you to modify as well as run the C program from within IDE by processing keys.

6) Test and debug- your program can have mistakes called as BUGS.

Debugging can be a means of obtaining and also correcting program errors. 

7) Maintain and edit program- changes should be made to program when it is extensible used.


 

C on the Macintosh:

- Apple offers x code development system for writing C codes on apple devices.

- you can code in multiple languages using X code development system

- Ex code uses either c lang or gee c compiler for C code which can be adjusted from settings.

- As Mac OS x is built in UNIX programs run in UNIX command line environment.

- Apple don’t provide command line compilers with x code development system but you can download command line tool enables you to use gee and c lang command.


 

Example : C language


#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)

{   int a;

a = 1;

printf("My favourite number is %d", a);

} return 0;


Output: My favourite number is 1.


 

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