Operating System Homework Help


What is an operating system?

An operating system is the main program of the computer or system so it is also called System software. Without an operating system a computer cannot be work. 

Operating System is described as a set of programs that synchronizes the working of computer hardware and software. 

In other simple words, an operating system is a software programme need to execute and control a computing devices such as smartwatches, smartphones, tablets, cars, supercomputers, computers, web servers, network towers, etc. It provides interface between computer and user. It provides graphical user interface (GUI), which is used to interact the user and the computer hardware.

It works as a intermediate platform for the interface between man and machine. 


Operating system examples: -

There are five most common operating systems are available. These are as follows:

1) Microsoft(MS) Windows, 2) Linux Operating System, 3) Android OS, 4) Apple macOS, 5) Apple's iOS.

Apple macOS is set up on Apple private computers like the Apple Macbook Air, Apple Macbook Pro and Apple Macbook.


Need of Operating system: -

An operating system is a very essential software of the system. A computer is useless (unworkable) without an operating system. Such as without a driver a car can not be run same way without an operating system a computer can not work. An operating system is very essential and main program that runs on a computer. It also permits you to interact with the computer even you don’t know how to express the computer's language. 


Types of an Operating System: -

There are main 5 types of operating system available. These are as follows:

  1. Real-time Operating System. 
  2. Distributed Operating System.
  3. Batch Operating System. 
  4. Time-Sharing Operating System. 
  5. Embedded Operating System. 


Components of Operating System: -

Operating system components are as follows: -

  • Input/Output (I/O) Device Management.
  • Network Management.
  • Process Management.
  • File Management.
  • Command Interpreter System.
  • Main Memory Management.
  • Secondary Storage Management.
  • Security Management.


Operating System Characteristics: -

According to the three basic main characteristics the operating systems are different. These characteristics are licensing, software compatibility, and complexity.

Characteristics of Modern operating systems are as follows: - 

  • Object-Oriented Design.
  • Resource allocation.
  • Handling I/O operations.
  • Protected and supervisor mode.
  • Multi-threading.
  • Error Detection and handling.
  • Memory management Virtual Memory Multitasking.
  • Program Execution.
  • Manipulation of the file system.
  • Systematic Multi-Processing.
  • Distributed Operating System.
  • Micro-Kernel Architecture.
  • Allows Networking Security.


Operating system functions: -

 Operating system functions are as follows: -

  • Manages the backing store and input/output such as scanners and printers.
  • Allocate with the relocation of programs in and out of memory.
  • Handles the utilization of memory between programs.
  • Organizes processing time between programs and users.
  • Preserve protection and security and access authority of users.


Advantages of Operating System: -

Benefits of an operating system are as follows: -

  • User Friendly - It supports GUI (Graphical User Interface). A system can communicate easily with the user.
  • Security and protection - It is a duty of an operating system to make assure that each information available inside them is protected and secure. 
  • Sharing Resources - 
  • Hardware Accessibility - It provides interaction with the hardware.
  • Multitasking - It performs more than one task at a time. For example, we can listen music with typing on MS Word.


Disadvantages of Operating System: -

Disadvantages of an operating system are as follows: -

  • Expensive - It is an open source operating system but all other platforms are examine to be costly. 
  • Reliability (trustability- An operating system is a necessary software for any computer.
  • Complexity - Sometimes it is much complex.
  • Fragmentation - It is a process of breaking into pieces or being divided into parts.
  • Virus Attacks - Viruses may attack if antivirus is not downloaded or updated.
  • System Failure or crashes.


Operating system structure:

  • Single end users generally include many programms running.
  • Multiprogramming improves CPU utilization through arranging jobs (code as well as data) so the CPU generally possesses that has one to execute.
  • OS retains a number of jobs within memory concurrently






Memory layout for a multiprogramming system.

  • Since, main memory is too smaller to support all jobs the actual jobs tend to be held includes just about all procedures residing upon drive awaiting allocation with main memory.
  • The operating system choices and start in order to execute one of the jobs memory.
  • The job needs to await a few dask, for example an Input / Output operating, to perform.
  • Time sharing/multitasking - is an extension of multiprogramming. it does multiple jobs by switching among them.
  • It provide direct communication between the user and system where in multiprogramming there is interaction between user and system.
  • If you have permission facility, multiprogramming is nothing but multitasking.
  • The user provides directions towards the Operating System or to a program directly through an input output device as well as wait for instant outcomes on output device.

             "response time" must be small (under 1sec)

  • A program filled in to storage performing is known as a process.
  • If serval jobs will be ready to end up being into memory, as well as presently there absolutely no sufficient place/memory them all, after that program should select amongst after that, referred to as 'job scheduling'. 


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