CHCECE017 Foster Holistic Development Of Child In Early Childhood Homework Answer

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Question :

Unit Assessment Pack (UAP) – Cover SheetCourse and Unit Details

Unit codeCHCECE017
Unit nameFoster the holistic development and wellbeing of the child in early childhood

Assessment Task 1 - Unit Knowledge Test (UKT)

Questions:

Q1: How does The National Quality Framework, National Quality Standards and Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) refer to child development? Answer in 50-100 words.

Q2: Explain inclusion, its intents and opportunities according to Early Years Learning Framework and My Time Our Place Framework for School Age Care? (50-100 words)

Q3: Early Years Learning Framework states that educators should ‘draw on a range of perspectives and theories’. Explain how these two views impact on understandings of children’s learning and development and how these understandings influence practice when working with young children. (150-200 words)

Q4: Explain how the emotional and psychological aspects of Vygotsky's theories are relevant to the educator’s role in an ECEC setting (250-300 words)

Q5: Provide an example and discuss how educator can support a child migrated from a non-English speaking country according to Vygotsky's theories? (50-70 words)

Q6: What steps educators can follow to encourage healthy social interaction and social, physical, psychological and cognitive development in children? List any five (5) steps.

Q7: How EYLF framework has categorised the different theories whilst suggesting these theories ‘inform approaches to children’s learning and development? (30-50 words)

Q8: Write the name of the theories correctly in the table according to the main theories mentioned in the EYLF (p.11):

Theories(Correctly identify the name)TheoristsFocusImplicationsfor practice

Piaget Steiner Montessori GardnerThe discrete and/or continuous stages of developmentEducators respond to and plan activities in relation to children’s developmental stages

Vygotsky Bruner Bronfenbrenner Malaguzzi RogoffDevelopmentand learning
occurs in the context of
children’s
communities
Educators and more knowledgeable others scaffold and transform learning in response to children’s prior understandings

Pavlov Skinner BanduraThe role of experience in shaping children’s behaviourEducator-directed activities coupled with rewardsand reinforcements

Habermas FreireCurriculum can have hidden aspects which frame certain points of view and ignore othersEducators challenge assumptions about curriculum and query taken for-granted practices

Foucault Bourdieu Canella
There are many forms of knowledge and no absolute
truth
Educatorsexplore many different ways of exploitingpower relationships embeddedintheir practicethatmay privilege certain children over others

Q9: Explain the following aspects of developmental theories for children between birth and 5 years of age:

  1. How these theories arose to existence?
  2. Explain the different views on “development” by the developmental theories
  3. One outcome of developmental theories
  4. Why developmental theories have been challenged (Fleer 1995; Nolan & Kilderry 2010)

Answer each aspect in 50-100 words.=

Q10: List four (4) criticisms of child development theories according to Arthur and colleagues (2008, p.19).

Q11: What do you understand by the contextual factors that influence the children’s emotional and

psychological development? (100-150 words)

Q12: List three (3) factors that enhance human development and name another three (3) that inhibit human development? Expand on each of these factors and discuss why they are relevant? (100-200 words)

Q13: Explain each of the following questions regarding self-esteem and self-identity:

  1. What do you understand by the terms, “Self-esteem” and “Self-identity”. Answer in your own 100-150 words.
  2. Why self-esteem is important? Answer in your own 100-150 words.
  3. How can you enhance self-esteem in children through play? List any ten (10) strategies.

Q14: Explain how during early childhood, children start to develop a "self-concept," the attributes, abilities, attitudes and values that they believe define them. How this “Self-concept” change during their development between birth and 5 years of age? (150-200 words)

Q15: Explain the three core principles of child development and associated developmental tasks of children from birth to 5 years. (150-200 words)

Q16: As an educator how can you be supporting children’s needs of different age groups. (100-150 words)

Q17: List five (5) organisational standards, policies and procedures that may impact on the services practices aimed to foster development and wellbeing.

Q18: Explain with an example that how policy directives impact on educator’s practices  when

implementing experiences, routines and environments. (50-100 words)

Unit Assessment Result Sheet (UARS)

Assessment Task 1 – Unit Knowledge Test (UKT) Student and Trainer/Assessor Details

Unit codeCHCECE017
Unit nameFoster the holistic development and wellbeing of the child in early childhood

UAT 2  Unit Skill Test - Case studies

Task:

Case study 1:

In a staff meeting, an educator made a comment, “there is no need to let children investigate ethical issues of their lives and culture, this is simply extra work with no real outcomes”. A number
of colleagues and other staff of service laughed off the statement, but no one challenged it.

Q1: According to you, comment if the behaviour of the educator in the case study scenario is appropriate or inappropriate? (One-word answer)

Q2: How colleagues and other staff members should have reacted on the above statement? Write three (3) appropriate practices.

Q3: Discuss two (2) reasons for children to investigate ethical issues relevant to their lives and their communities and culture.

Q4: As an educator, how could you encourage the children to investigate ethical issues relevant to their lives and communities? Discuss two (2) strategies.

Q5: How an educator builds a sense of community in the children? (50-100 words)

Case study 2:

Maria, an educator ensures, all children in her care receive
  • physical development (gross motor, fine motor skills and fundamental movement skills.
  • social development
  • emotional development
  • cognitive development
  • communication development
  • an environment for holistic learning and development

Q1: Complete the below table for identifying the gross motor skills and fine motor skills according to the approximate age of the child:

Approximate AgeGross motor skillsFine motor skills
2 months

3 months

6 months

12 – 15 months

15 – 18 months

18 -24 months

4-5-year old

Q2: Explain the influence of race and culture on children and their social development? (100-150 words)

Q3: Explain emotional development and emotions in 100-150 words.

Q4: Outline any five (5) pedagogical actions that can support children’s cognitive development?

Q5: Explain how children are supported with their language and literacy skills through a rich immersion of quality language and literacy environments and activities? (50-100 words)

Q6: Give an example through which an educator can create an environment for holistic learning and development for a child transitioning into a different age group. (150-200 words)

Show More

Answer :

Q1: How does The National Quality Framework, National Quality Standards and Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) refer to child development? Answer in 50-100 words.

The national quality framework (NQF)in 2012 was developed for the improvement of children education and care services. It approaches family day care, long day care, kindergarten, and outside school hours care across Australia.

National quality standards are important features of NQF.  It involves the following seven areas:

  • Health and safety for children
  • Physical environment
  • Staff arrangement
  • Education program and practices
  • Collaboration with family and community
  • Service management and leadership
  • Association with children

Early years learning framework allows educators, child care professionals, and early childhood teachers to promote, develops child’s learning so that children can become the flourishing learner.

Q2: Explain inclusion, its intents and opportunities according to Early Years Learning Framework and My Time Our Place Framework for School Age Care? (50-100 words)

Inclusion is teamwork, which involves selected service supervisors, providers, and educators working along with allied health professionals and families so that children can be supported in their meaningful participation. It intends to serve the child by the broad, balanced, and excited designed curriculum. EYLF offers a plethora of opportunities for knowledge and social-emotional growth of the child. My time our place framework for school-age care was developed by the council of Australia helps educators in maximizing and developing potential among children for their futuresuccess. This frame is designed for school-age care educators to work in collaboration with children, family, and community too.

Q3: Early Years Learning Framework states that educators should ‘draw on a range of perspectives and theories’. Explain how these two views impact on understandings of children’s learning and development and how these understandings influence practice when working with young children. (150-200 words)

The range of perspectives and theories gives deep insight into child development and growth during different age groups. These two provide a framework for assessing child growth and learning. They describe the various aspects of action in a staged approach. These theories are imperative and significant for educators to understand age-appropriate behavior, which is quite helpful in judging the growth of the child. Such theories focus on crucial aspects of development, such as social, emotional, and cognitive growth. Thus, if an educator has knowledge of these theories, then it helps in guiding and teaching the child in a better way. The range of theories and perspective are different from each other and are independent. But when they are used together, they provide a powerful understanding of child development to the educator. Thus, While working with children, these different theoretical approaches and parts of different theories are an integral part.

BELONGING, BEING & BECOMING The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia. 

Q4: Explain how the emotional and psychological aspects of Vygotsky's theories are relevant to the educator’s role in an ECEC setting (250-300 words)

Vygotsky's theories give a theoretical foundation for effective practice among educators. He determines important element for the development of successful teaching and learning.  Vygotsky's thought that education is not only limited to the learning of particular skills and knowledge however it is the overall development of the learning abilities of a child which includes their thinking capacity which should be clear and creative, planning and implementation of their chalked plan, and sharing of their understanding through various sources.  Furthermore,he strongly believed that this all could be achieved by giving standards of cultural tools to the children for their thinking process and creative process.

Human intelligence is the chief characteristics of human which make us distinct from other creatures. Vygotsky claimed in his statement that we (human) invented material tools like knives, spoon for the extension of physical ability and psychological tools for mental abilities. Psychological tools are symbolic, maps, plans, expression, musical notation, models, pictures, symbolic languages, and many more.
However, child language should be valued as it is vital for the self-identity of a child and also helps in developing high self-esteem and pride within a child.In addition to this child’s culture supportive activities like dance, art, etc., should also be included for creating and sustaining social interaction. This can be achieved by teachers support and encouragement for social interaction and can be done inthe following ways:

  • Group activities planning and implementation among the children so that they can share and respect to everyone.
  • Organization of small group play
  • Group participation so that every individual can participate with their peer who hasa problem in the interaction.
  • Finding the common mutual interest among children.
  • Arrangement of materials to promote the participation.
  • Promote classroom interaction among children by providing face to face sitting arrangement.

Therefore educator’s enthusiasm and positive focus among children's social interaction will promote social, emotional, and skills development in them.

Q5: Provide an example and discuss how educator can support a child migrated from a non-English speaking country according to Vygotsky's theories? (50-70 words)

Vygotsky's theories are applicable in the migration of a child’s education and experiences. Educator requires fulfillingthe cognitive and cultural level needs of an immigrant child.

For example,an educator must review mutual association among alphabet letters to ensure that letters are expressed meaningful to the learner. ‘A’ for apple doesn’t have any meaning to a non-English speaking child. Pairing with another child of the same culture will be effective. Therefore, it is important for the educator to know the culture and experiences of a child.

Eva, A. L. (2017).How Teachers Can Help Immigrant Kids Feel Safe. 

Q6: What steps educators can follow to encourage healthy social interaction and social, physical, psychological and cognitive development in children? List any five (5) steps.(150)

Steps for an educator are as follows

  1. Use of powerful words: educators must teach about short, powerful words and phrases that can be utilized by young age children like ‘stop’ or ‘I like this.’ Ensure about the tone of voice for modeling the word.
  2. Teach about consequences of behavior: use the concept that all behavior has consequences for guiding the behavior of a child. Ask a child to find an association between action and response.
  3. The obligation of few rules: for creating a caring and safe population. Like remain safe, kind, and preserve property.
  4. Active and empathetically participation: Strong emotion of young child requires educator empathy and attention. Make sure that child knows that the educator is listening and reflect exactly the same words of a child, which confirms child that feeling is expressed and understandable by the educator.
  5. Expressive while teaching: it includes gestures and other clues use while teaching. It is important to focus on “do” than “don’t.”

HOW TO PROMOTE SOCIAL INTERACTION IN THE CLASSROOM FOR YOUNG CHILDREN. (2020). 

Q7: How EYLF framework has categorized the different theories whilst suggesting these theories ‘inform approaches to children’s learning and development? (30-50 words)

  • Cognitive theory:concern about thought process development of the child
  • Theory of attachment: concern about social development and relationship of the child.
  • Theory of social learning:reflects learning byobservation, either audio or visual mode.
  • Theory of socio-culture:reflects that learning inherits to others by interacting with people.
  • Theory of psychosexual development:reflects that child development occurs in stages.

Cherry, K(2020). Child development theories and example. 

Q8: theories table:

  1. developmental theoriests
  2.  Socio-cultural theoriests
  3.  socio behaviorist theoriests
  4. Critical theorists
  5. Post- structuralist theorists
  6. Nolan, A. &Raban, B. (2015).Theories into practice. Understanding and rethinking our work with young children. Different Theorists.pub (earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au)

Q9: Explain the following aspects of developmental theories for children between birth and 5 years of age: 

  • Different Theorists.pub (earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au)
  • 9.1. How these theories arose to existence? 

Development theories arouse to existence to represent the view that children's knowledge is constructive and can be manipulated and explore the environment surrounding them. Development begins from the birth of a child through their adulthood, and every stage is characterized by different ways of thought process.

  • 9.2. Explain the different views on “development” by the developmental theories 

Piaget's developmental theory focused on the cognitive development of children, while Steiner’s developmental theorist focused more on social, emotional, and personal development and more preference for delay educational experience.

  • 9.3. One outcome of developmental theories 

The outcome of developmental theory to suggest the design of environment for fulfilling potentials. This theory examines the background and lives of the creative individual to determine developmental experience correlation to the later creativity.

  • 9.4. Why developmental theories have been challenged (Fleer 1995; Nolan & Kilderry 2010)

Developmental theorists believe stages of development are discrete and distinct as per children transforming from one age group to another in a very clean-cut fashion. However, other theorists believed that developmental stages are continued and overlapping with each other. Recognition of consistency and variability among children can be achieved bydevelopmental theories.

(Nolan, A. &Raban, B. (2015).Theories into practice. Understanding and rethinking our work with young children. Different Theorists.pub (earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au)

Answer each aspect in 50-100 words

Q10: List four (4) criticisms of child development theories according to Arthur and colleagues (2008, p.19).

  • According to scientific point of view, oprationally new terms need to be be defined or in the duplicable form of an operation but it was oftenly not done by Piaget. Thus it became difficult for others to access the significance of his work as it was replicated
  • It is suggested that stge may be wrongly selected or planned in a wrong way.
  • Theorist did not offer substantial evidence related to the cognitive capacity among children.
  • It was suggested that physical manipulation of external stimuli was considered as mandatory for cognitive development byt it was criticized that children take birth without physical response of external stimuli such as paralysed children and these children also capable to develop normal cognitive development.

(Nolan, A. &Raban, B. (2015).Theories into practice. Understanding and rethinking our work with young children. Different Theorists.pub (earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au)

Q11: What do you understand by the contextual factors that influence the children’s emotional and psychological development? (100-150 words)

Emotional development:thisfactor gives a base to realize about own feeling and experiencing others. This underpinning preceded after the birth of the child till death. The superior influence ofa child’s emotional development is the quality of the relationshipbetweenchild and care provider. It also impacts the brain development of a child. It develops on regular communication among children and care providers. In these communications,the child attempts to decreasethe physical and emotional gap and care provider responses towards the closure approach.

Psychology developmental:The theory of psychosocial development was formed by Erikson. According to this theory,psychological and social development is studiedunder eight stages,whichresemble physical development stages. In every stage, human faces a psychological conflict which should be resolved in response to attain growth developmentally. The transformation from infant group to old age, these conflicts like trust versus mistrust, doubt versus autonomy, guilt versus initiative, inferiority versus industry, and many moremay exist.

Q12: List three (3) factors that enhance human development and name another three (3) that inhibit human development? Expand on each of these factors and discuss why they are relevant? (100-200 words)

Factors that enhance directly or indirectly human development are:

  1. Environment: human-environment involves various stimulating factors like social, physical environment, etc., which an individual obtained during conceptions.
  2. Sex: for the growth and development in human sexuality is an important factor. The growth and development of girls and boys differ in terms of height, courage, and physical growth.
  3. Nutrition: growth and development depend upon dietary habitsand nutritive value. Consumption of diet lacking nutrients results in malnutrition, which negatively impacts on individual structural and functional development.

Inhibiting factors of human development are:

  1. Hormonal factor: various hormones in the human body are responsible for growth and development, like growth hormone. This hormone is meant for height development. Another hormone sex hormones are important for the development of the male and female reproductive systems. Therefore, increase or decrease hormonal production affectsthe rate of growth and development.
  2. Gender: male and female genders have distinct manifest specifically observed in puberty age. Like in male prominent Adam’s apple is a sign of maturity, while in females, breast development. Imbalance in hormones may results in impairment in transition and reflect inhibition of growth and development.
  3. Hereditary: child contains genes from both the parents. By these genes, only physical traits develop. Moreover,the disease can also be transferred from parents to offspring, which have a detrimental impact on human development. 

Q13: Explain each of the following questions regarding self-esteem and self-identity: 

13.1. What do you understand by the terms, “Self-esteem” and “Self-identity”. Answer in your own 100-150 words. 

Self-esteem:it can be defined as the suggestions that an individual has forhis own. People who have respectable self-esteem experience positive thingsabout themselves and their life is in general. When good self-esteem is present in people, then they find it very simple in dealing with conditions thatlife gives them. However, people with low self-esteem find it tough to find solutions and also found difficult to reach in a positive light. In these low self-esteem conditions,they find their survival more critical and towards negative light. Moreover, they also find difficulties in dealing with things whatever life gave to them

Self-identity: it indicates the prominent and stable point of individual self-perception. Like as per my views, I am a peace lover.Self-identity refers that how we explain ourselves. It is related to one’s perception of particular and selected qualities, capabilities, traits, and characteristics which are representing oneself. Therefore, self-identity is defined about oneself that what you want to be,while personal identity is who we are.  

13.2. Why self-esteem is important? Answer in your own 100-150 words. 

Self-esteem is important because it influences the choices and decisions of people. It offers a motivational function by giving chances to the people to for exploring their potentials and taking good care of themselves. Along with this, they also people also strive for the fulfillment of individual goals and aspirations. People who have low self-esteem having the same goal and aspirants but motivation among themselves is a deficit to work for the achievements.

Therefore, self-esteem has a significant role in individual motivation and supporting success in the entire life of an individual, while low self-esteem may hold individual back in gaining success in school or work due to lack of believeand trust among oneself capability for success.

( Ashleycullins. 25 thing you can do right now to build a child’s confidence. big life journal.2019. Biglifejournal.com

13.3. How can you enhance self-esteem in children through play? List any ten (10) strategies.

Self-esteem can be enhanced by

  1. Positive self-communication with children: engage with the child in damaging and negative talks.
  2. Call children by their names: it is a way to transfer the message that they are valuable.
  3. Assign appropriate tasks as per their age: to make them realize that they are responsible, competent, and useful.
  4. Express unconditional love towards children: assure children that you care and love them
  5. Attention toward own confidence improvement: express confidence in front of children.
  6. Play along with children: to give child feelings of value and accomplishment.
  7. Find a special time for both: to spend quality of time together.
  8. Ask child advice: in accordance with their age-related problem, ask advice from the child to express that child’s thoughts are valuable.
  9. Undivided attention: paying full attention to our children and attentive to their requirements.
  10. Teaching to set a goal: to make the child feel more capable of goal attainment.

Q14: Explain how during early childhood, children start to develop a "self-concept," the attributes, abilities, attitudes and values that they believe define them. How this “Self-concept” change during their development between birth and 5 years of age? (150-200 words)

Self-concept is about the viewsabout our own and our abilities. Self-concept among child proceeds from birth. It starts by how adults are responding to their parents and care providers to create an emotional bond among infantspositively by caring and warm connections. It helps in promoting a healthy child’s self-concept.

Additionally, when children grow,their abilities tocommunicate successfully intheir surroundings attributed self -healthy concept, which is important in early childhood development. It also empowers the child to experience competent in trying nova things and strive for future success. 

However, self -concept changed during their development. As by the 3 years,the Categorical self is developed among children for viewing themselves in a concrete way in different labels of this or that.For example, young age children categorize themselves with respect to their sex, “girl or boy,” age “adult or child,” and many more. These different labels are utilized to explainthe self-concepts of children. In contrast, preschoolers avoid linking their self-description within an integrated self-portrait. Furthermore, 3-5 years of children have a knowledge deficit about opposite characteristics.

Q15: Explain the three core principles of child development and associated developmental tasks of children from birth to 5 years. (150-200 words)

The three child development principles are:

1. Proximodistal principle: this stated the direction of development. As per this principle, development begins from the center to outward of the body.

In fertilized egg,the tiny cell divides and outward expand so that it can become an embryo.

2. Cephalocaudal principle: according to this principle, development takes place from head to toe. As the child attains physical control in head control first, second arms, and last legs.

Suppose we are holding a newborn child, then we need to care for the baby’s head as the baby cannot control head movement. However, by the age of 2, the baby will gain control of the overhead movement. After a few months baby will gain control over arms use in reaching objects and then leg control to crawl, stand, etc.

3. Orthogenetic principle: as per this development begins from a simple task to a complex task. Hence, perfection in a simple task lays the base for the complex task.

Task: if a child is asked to draw with a crayon, it will be not easy for that child. Firstly child will learn how to hold the crayon then purposeful hands movement,after which a picture can be drawn.

Q16: As an educator how can you be supporting children’s needs of different age groups. (100-150 words)

It is important that educator provides a best creative, improved and a maintained environment to the child for the attainment of the optimum standards and child can experience best. It can be done by following:

  • Provide a variety of environments like outdoor, offsite (visit, walk, etc.), and indoor, etc. Different learning environments play an important role in the development of skills, emotions, confidence, self-esteem, and motivation for the learning process.
  • Provide opportunities to the children for their  choices, decision, ideas extension, etc. so that they can gain the best knowledge

An educator can support children’s need by:

  • Self-knowledge development to understand children thought process and learning
  • Assessment and observation of children for promoting learning
  • Encouragement of children for participation
  • Ensuring repetition of children’s experience
  • Supporting children’s feeling of well being and security

Q17: List five (5) organisational standards, policies and procedures that may impact on the services practices aimed to foster development and wellbeing.

  1. Transition policy
  2. Multicultural policy
  3. Anti-bias and inclusive policy
  4. Treatment of children policy
  5. Bullying policy

Q18: Explain with an example that how policy directives impact on educator’s practices when implementing experiences, routines and environments. (50-100 words)

The foundation of quality practice is supported by policy and procedures. Policies help to guide the activities of service providing educators. It also helps in guiding the daily performance and decision making of professionals so that the best outcomes can be attained for children, their families, and educators as well. Moreover, the development of confidence and professional practices can also be achieved by policies.

For example: if one of the services sendsthe child back home with a doubt of gastrointestinal problem that time educators should be confident enough in their action of writing appropriate and clear illness exclusion policy in response to support their decision.

SECOND PART

  1. In a staff meeting, an educator made a comment, “there is no need to let children investigate ethical issues of their lives and culture. This is simply extra work with no real outcomes”. A number of colleagues and other staff of service laughed off the statement, but no one challenged it 

Q1: According to you, comment if the behaviour of the educator in the case study scenario is appropriate or inappropriate? (One-word answer)

Ans: Inappropriate

Q2: How colleagues and other staff members should have reacted on the above statement? Write three (3) appropriate practices.

In response to the educator comment, other staff and colleagues laughed off instead of challenging the comment.

Three appropriate practices are:

  1. Staff members and colleagues should listen to the educator statement properly so that they can explain in context to that question.
  2. One should have explained the importance of ethical issues in child development.
  3. Staff should explain all the possibilities of positive outcomes from student's work.

Q3: Discuss two (2) reasons for children to investigate ethical issues relevant to their lives and their communities and culture.

  1. For the protection and wellbeing of child culture, lives, and communities so that children cannot be discriminated against gender, age, economy, language, etc. 
  2. Ethics helps children in the decision-making process in context to their ethical responsibilities. Additionally, to safeguard the detailed information of children, specifically when] shared bythe digital medium.

Q4: As an educator, how could you encourage the children to investigate ethical issues relevant to their lives and communities? Discuss two (2) strategies.

Children enjoy the environment which is created by the educator in which children mutually enjoy, respect, care for others. When children start working collaboratively in their daily performance, experiences and also get the opportunity for decision making helps them learning independent living.

Strategies:

  1. Respond to children towards diversity with respect: when children express concern about others and have knowledge of similarities, dissimilarities, and connection being an educator, I will promote their learning.  I can support them by providing exposure and appreciation to different dialects and languages and will encourage children to listen and respect their language too.
  2. Awareness of fairness among children: when children gain knowledge that how an individual can be included or excluded from their social and physical environment and their abilities to recognize bias and unfairness is learned, then as an educator, I will engage children in discussing equality in diversity behavior.

Q5: How an educator builds a sense of community in the children? (50-100 words)

Educators can build a sense of ‘we’ feeling, belonging, member of teams in their classroom or teaching settings.  There are many ways by which a sense of community can be developed, like routine predictability. By following the same routine, a child knows what next will happen and what they are expected to react in every part of activities. Therefore children will more emotionally prepared, less stressed, less chaotic, etc. Similarly, trust development is also very important, which can be done by making eye-to-eye contact to make the child comfortable and bring the child out from critical conditions. Moreover, for the promotion of a sense of unity and making children realize that they are connected with other photos of children, and their family can also be posted across the classroom.

Case study 2: Maria, an educator ensures, all children in her care receive.

  • • physical development (gross motor, fine motor skills, and fundamental movement skills. 
  • • social development 
  • • emotional development 
  • • cognitive development 
  • • communication development 
  • • an environment for holistic learning and development 

Q1: Complete the below table for identifying the gross motor skills and fine motor skills according to the approximate age of the child:

Approximate Age Gross motor skills 
Fine motor skills 


2 months Can lift head when the position on tummy
Can “bat” at the object.
Can bring own hands to mouth
3 months :Head raising when pulled to sitThe holding of a small object in hand
6 months Able to raise the upper portion of abdomen and chestEye movement in all direction to follow any object
12 – 15 months 
Can walk alone
Able to squats and stands back up
Walk-in steps up down by holding the hand
Interest to explore, page-turning in books
Can put toys in a container
15 – 18 months Able to run but fall easily
Can make use of both hands for play
Can use index finger for pointing an object
Can separate index finger from others.
Can make block tower by blocks
18 -24 months 
Can run and walk well
Can play from the ball
Can Climb stairs without help and support 
Can do Jumping by both feet
Control over hands while building a block tower
In a shoelace can string beads
4-5-year olds
Can do cycle riding
Can begin Skips
Can do ball catching
Can do one-foot hops
Skate and swimming can begin
Skipping on alternate feet can be done
Well climbing
Improvement in scissor skills
Can solve simple puzzles
Can do button and unbutton of shirt
Can keep the small object in bottle rapidly
Giving interest in the computer or video games
Good finger skills developed
Can do drawing, coloring, and painting
Can work with other medium like clay, paper etc

Q2: Explain the influence of race and culture on children and their social development? (100-150 words)

Every child is different and they behave according to the things they learn. Hence, the cultures in which they grow immensely affect their way of communicating and socializing. From very early age child begins interaction within their family or outside to their family which give shape to the child development and well being. Behavior and developmental problems are more common among children. These developmental and psychosocial errors interference with the normal behavior of a child. There are various problems arises due to race, cultures and ethnicity which adversely impact on the self identity of child.

Q3: Explain emotional development and emotions in 100-150 words.

Emotional development in children is one of the complex tasks which begin from infancy till adulthood. The first emotion is expressed by a child in anger, sadness, fear, joy, etc. however, a sense of self helps in developing complex emotions such as embarrassment, guilt, pride, shame, etc. Moreover, children of school age and young age groups are still learning to identify different emotions, finding the reason behind the emotion, and learning the correct use of emotions.

Emotions: it is a complex feeling which leads to psychological and physical changes thataffect the thought process and behavior of an individual. Emotion includes expressive behavior, conscious learning, physiological arousal, and many more. Emotions are categorized into three main theories:

  1. Physiological theory reflects responses in the body expresses emotions
  2. Cognitive theory: addressed that mental activity and thought processes play a key role in emotional expression.
  3. Neurological theory: suggest that activities in the brain give rise to emotions.

Q4: Outline any five (5) pedagogical actions that can support children’s cognitive development?

  1. Finding distinct needs of family and learner:  every learner requires a strong appropriate curriculum, nurturing relationship, supportive surroundings, but these requirements are not sufficient for every child. Therefore an educator must focus on an individualized education program to fulfill the individual goal. Likewise, children speaking a different language can learn English and be referred to as an English language learner. An educator can help them in learning by providing multicultural activities, special support, developing a feeling of acceptance in every classroom activity.
  2. 2. Environment modification: classroom environment can be modified as per the needs of children, like the use of pictures, shapes, sound changes, etc., to provide support to the learners.
  3. 3. Activities changes: disable children might find difficulty in completing the task than other children.  Such children need more help and support in performing a task like praise child in activities, observe to ensure that every child is involved, etc. 
  4. 4. Curriculum modification: evaluate whether curriculum includes all different kinds of goals and guidance. If it is missing, then the curriculum can be modified.
  5. 5. Culture reflection: culture influences individual thinking process and action. Knowledge about one’s culture raises the confidence level and also works ability.

Q5: Explain how children are supported with their language and literacy skills through a rich immersion of quality language and literacy environments and activities? (50-100 words)

Literacy skills through rich environments give opportunities to the children to learn and exploring, and making use of their education from their own daily activities and play. The literacy-rich environment is well organized so that space and experience can take place within it so that children's engagement can be promoted and learning can be enhanced.

Language and literacy skills as social practice are a helpful conceptual framework for the support of educator practice. This framework addresses the values and importance of different social cultures in child learning, acknowledges the significance of distinct children background and the ample of language and their literacy which a child bring to literacy environment.

Q6: Give an example through which an educator can create an environment for holistic learning and development for a child transitioning into a different age group. (150-200 words)

Holistic learning and development for a child is an approach towards learning which not only emphasizes the importance of physical development but also includes the emotional and psychological well-being of the child, specifically during early childhood.

The Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) and Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) encourages and influences educators of early childhood to concentrate on a holistic approach in their teaching-learning techniques rather than concentrating on traditional educational milestones of aptitude. Moreover,an educator’s holistic approach helps in a child’s development in their own natural surroundings, which promotesa strong relationship through learning and social activities as well.

Example:  addressing child interest: understanding about interest and motives of individual children and determine motives that will be helpful for them so that an educator can provide help and support to the children in finding their identity and purpose in life. Identification of child interest helps educatorsto broaden the learning opportunities for the learner.