|Assessment Details and Submission Guidelines|
|Unit Title||Management and Organisations in a Global Environment|
Tutorial Questions (Individual Assignment)
This is strictly required to be your own original work. Plagiarism will be penalised. Students are required to apply the theories and knowledge derived from the unit materials, demonstrate critical analysis and provide a considered and
comprehensive evaluation. Students must use correct in-text citation conventions.
|Assessment Title||Tutorial Questions Assignment|
the Assessment and Linkage to ULO.
The following Unit Learning Outcomes are applicable to this assessment:
|Total Marks||50 Marks|
|Word limit||The word limit is provided in each question|
This assignment is designed to assess your level of knowledge of the key topics covered in this unit “Management and Organisations in a Global Environment”.
Answer All SIX (6) of the following questions. The questions come from the tutorial questions from week 2 to week 11.
Question 1 Week 3: Tutorial 2 (Question 3) (7 marks)
What are the downsides, if any, of building a diverse workforce? Answer this question in 300 words (support your arguments with key research findings on diversity management).
Question 2 Week 4: Tutorial 3 (Question 3) (7 marks)
What could the individual employees do to help manage their own stress more effectively? Answer this question in 300 words (support your claims/arguments with key research findings on managing stress in the workplace: individual).
Question 3 Week 6: Tutorial 5 (Question 3 & 4) (11 marks)
What are the essentials for team-based organisational success? What are the challenges of a team- based organisation, specifically in terms of virtual teams? What are the required competencies for virtual leadership? Answer this question in 300 words (support your claims/arguments with key research findings on team-based organisation challenges and success).
Question 4 Week 8: Tutorial 7 (Question 3) (11 marks)
Explain the various things you can do to improve your effectiveness as a communicator in organisations. Answer this question in 300 words (support your claims/arguments with key research findings on effective communicators in organisations)
Question 5 Week 9: Tutorial 8 (Question 2) (7 marks)
Describe the major types of individual power in organisations. Answer this question in 300 words (support your claims/arguments with key research findings on organisational politics and power).
Question 6 Week 10: Tutorial 9 (Question 2) (7 marks)
Distinguish between mechanistic organisations and organic organisations, as described by the contingency approach to organisational design (support your claims/arguments with key research findings on contingency approach to differentiate mechanistic organisations and organic organisations).
Pearl-Martinez and Stephens (2016, pp. 9) mentioned that a Diverse workforce is the type of workforce in which people from different cultures and backgrounds are included in the workplace. In the global business environment, most organisations are possessed of different sexual orientations, ethnicities, religions and other types of employees. A diverse workforce helps the organisations increase the creativity in work by gathering the opinion of different people, and in this way, it develops the organisation's productivity. However, there is some downside of developing a diverse workforce that is discussed below in details:
The downside of building a workforce
A diverse workforce generates different opinions of the workplace people (Griffin, Phillips & Gully 2016). Therefore, organisations have to provide extra effort to handle the issues of the employees. It is necessary to have a good relationship among the employees to maintain the consistency of productivity. It is another major downside of generating a diverse workforce in the organisation.
Communication is a significant issue in a diverse workplace as employees are from different cultures for which they communicate in different languages. According to Stanciu, Condrea and Zamfir (2016, pp. 394), communication among the employees is a significant thing as it helps to maintain coordination in the organisation's various activities. Therefore, people of different languages in the workplace may face issues interacting with each other.
In the diverse workplace, employees are possessed of fear of outsourcing and offshoring, which may affect productivity and profitability in the organisation. MNC organisations use a diverse workforce by collecting local employees to reduce labour cost. That is why the fear of outsourcing and offshoring the employees is another downside of building a diverse workforce.
The downside of building a diverse workforce can impact productivity as well as the profitability of the organisation. Therefore, it is required to adopt proper strategies of diversity management to resolve the issues.
In the modern business world, stress among employees has become very common due to the utmost competition. Therefore, individual employees have to work on their own to reduce stress from them. In this case, different strategies can be adopted by an individual employee. They are as follows:
The self-efficiency approach refers to an individual employee's beliefs in their capabilities and competencies to accomplish a specific task. Therefore, this approach can be applied to develop confidence and, in this way, reduce stress from them. Three dimensions of the self-efficiency approach are magnitude, strength and generality. The magnitude dimension enables the employees to develop confidence in an individual. Along with this, strengths help to motivate the employees in the workplace by improving their performance level. In this way, a self-efficient approach is massively effective to reduce stress among employees.
According to Ryan (2016, pp. 1590), the equity theory of motivation deals with a similar workplace situation based on input and output. In this way, the equity theory of motivation assumes the employees' motivation by treating all of them equally and fairly. Through this, it has been understood that organisations need to take the initiative to motivate the employees by treating them equally. In this way, it can be used to motivate the employees and improve their mental wellbeing.
In the research of Latham, Brcic and Steinhauer (2017, pp. 27), goal setting theory refers to the specific goals that contribute to the higher and better task performance of the organisation. Specific goals help to direct the employees in the organisation, and in this way, it impacts the subsequent performance of an individual in an organisation. Therefore, employees need to set their own goals, and by achieving them, it is possible to reduce stress in the workplace (Griffin, Phillips & Gully 2016).
An individual employee can use these strategies effectively to reduce stress in the workplace by motivating them towards improving their performance.
Essentials for the team based organisational success
The organisations that emphasise team-based business and handle the organisational activity within groups and teams are called team-based organisations (Griffin, Phillips & Gully 2016). For developing a team-based organisation, some essential things are required to develop a team-based organisational culture. They are as follows:
In the view of Bergman, Delve, and Skagert (2016, pp. 535), effective communication is necessary to maintain the activities in teams in the organisation. That is why effective communication can be considered essential for developing a team-based organisation.
Along with this, specific organisational leadership is required to manage and direct all the employees properly towards success.
Empathy skills among the employees help the employees in groups to understand each other's feelings. That is why it is essential to develop a team-based organisation.
Challenges of a team-based organisation
There are several challenges in the team-based organisation that can impact the development of the team-based organisation. They are as follows:
For maintaining the activities in the virtual world, effective leadership is required massively. That is why inefficient leaders may face issues to handle the employees' issues in the remote working environment.
It is observed that less organisational transparency is a major challenge in team-based organisations as employees work in groups. In the remorse working environment, the organisational transparency issue is more prominent.
Less technical knowledge of the employees may impact the entire team activity in the team-based organisation.
Required competencies for the virtual leadership
Liao (2017, pp. 650) stated that virtual leadership is a specific type of leadership used to manage teams in a remote working environment. Some specific competencies which are required for virtual leadership are as follows:
Communicators refer to an individual with the capability of exchanging information with others (Griffin, Phillips & Gully 2016). In the area of professionalism, effective communication helps to maintain coordination and develops productivity. Through using effective strategies, the communication skill of an individual can be developed:
Things to do to improve the effectiveness as a communicator
The research of Kee et al. (2018, pp. 100), states that communication skill helps to maintain continuous interaction with other workers and in this way, to maintain productivity in the organisation. Therefore, for developing communication, an individual can take the help of the online speaking course. Through these online speaking courses, employees can develop their skill at their convenience.
For improving communication skill, it is necessary to improve active listening skill as well. In this way, it is possible to understand the vision of others and interact with them more effectively. In the workplace, active listening skill helps the employees to avoid miscommunication and maintain good relationships with other workers.
It is highly required to interact with other workers frequently in the organisation to improve the communication level. Continuous communication with other workers develops speaking ability and helps to generate good relationships in the workplace.
Thus, through implementing the strategies properly, employees can improve their effectiveness as communicators. It would be highly effective to develop the performance and to sustain the job position in the workplace. Along with this, improving the effectiveness of the employee's impact on the organisations positively as it is possible to maintain ghee productivity and profitability in the organisation.
Employees power in the workplace refers to the ability to generate control on the employees and the organisational activities in the workplace (Griffin, Phillips & Gully 2016). Employees power in the workplace are different types in which some of the major individual power has been discussed below:
Expert power refers to the power of control of organisational activity with knowledge, skills and expertise. This individual power in the organisation enables an individual to achieve robust control by managing the employees confidently. Therefore, expert power can be defined as the perception of a certain person to elevate the level of knowledge that other people in the organisation don't have.
Reward power refers to the specific power that is achieved by the reward in the organisation. This power is gained through the reward and recognition of the authority. This power gives control of the extra time off, promotion and in other facilities of the workplace.
According to Pulford et al. (2018, pp. 1431), persuasive power refers to convincing other people in the organisation to generate wise decisions in the workplace. Individual employees have to utilise logic and facts in the persuasive power to convince other people in the workplace.
Hofmann et al. (2017, pp. 5) mentioned that legitimate power is derived from the highest position of an individual in the workplace, which is based on perception and reality. Some major examples of legitimate power are like allocating the organisational activity, directing the employees and others.
Referent power defines the power of influencing other people in the workplace with respect, identity, and admiration. An individual acquires this power through the wellbeing and respect of others.
In the view of Qi et al. (2020, pp. 1910), Mechanistic organisations have centralised control systems. On the other hand, organic organisations are the contrary organisation as it uses an informal system to maintain organisational activity. Some major differences between these two organisations are defined below in the table manner:
|Mechanistic organisation||Organic organisation|
|Mechanistic organisations use centralised decision-making processes to maintain organisational activity. ||The organic organisation refers to the organisation that uses informal processes to maintain organisational activity (Wolfe, 2017, pp. 230). |
|Mechanistic organisational activities are maintained through the hierarchical and bureaucratic culture. ||Employees can achieve flexibility in the activities of Organic organisation. |
|The mechanistic organisational structure is a centralised approach, as employees in the organisation have to follow the authority's directions. ||In this case, the organic organisation is contrary to the mechanistic organisation as it follows a decentralised approach. |
Table 1: Distinguish between the mechanistic organisation and organic organisation
(Source: Created by author)
The above table has shown the differences between a mechanistic organisational structure with organic organisational structure. It is observed that the mechanistic organisational structure helps to generate control on the employees and in the organisational activities. On the other hand, in the organic organisational structure, it is not possible as employees can maintain the organisational with utmost flexibility. In the context of the contingency approach, it can be stated that organic organisational structure adds a positive outcome in the organisation, which is effective to improve productivity along with profitability. Apart from this, organisational design in the contingency approach states the effectiveness of 'good fit' between the organisation's internal and external system to achieve a maximum outcome in the business.