INTR5009 Information Operations And Cyber Power Homework Answer

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Unit Outline

INTR5009 Information Operations and Cyber Power Semester 1, 2021

Unit study package code: INTR5009


Detailed information on assessment tasks

1. Critical Report 50% (2000 words)

Write a 2,000 word paper that compares two recent news articles (chosen by you). The first news article should reflect high standards of journalistic tradecraft. In contrast, the second article should be an example of fake news. Your paper should include a critical analysis of the following qualities for each article:

  • Accuracy of the title (Does the title accurately describe the content of the article? Or is it clickbait? How is the article presented on social media?)
  • Consistency of logic (Are quotes, evidence, and observations presented impartially and in context? Does the article make sense? Does the article contain any obvious logical fallacies? Is its conclusion plausible?)
  • Use of evidence (What primary sources does the article rely on? Does it attribute its source/s correctly? Does it acknowledge what information is unknown or unclear? Does it use multiple sources? What are the credentials of its source/s?)
  • Reliability of the publisher (Does the publisher have a significant bias? If so, how severe is its bias? Are its editorial boards and/or parent organisations easy to trace?)
  • The author/s (Is the writer a professional journalist? Does he/she have a track record of publishing good quality articles? Is his/her writing grammatically correct?)
  • The intended audience (Who is the intended audience of the article? Does it aim to challenge and/or impart real knowledge to its intended audience? Or is it more concerned with reinforcing pre- existing prejudices and/or manipulating the audience’s emotions?

2. Research Essay 50% (4000 words)

Write a 4000-word research essay answering ONE of the questions listed below.

  1. What is ‘Cyber Power’? Clearly outline the key features of your definition. Provide real world examples of Cyber Power to support your answer.
  2. Describe the goal of information operations. How does it have a political and/or military impact?
  3. Is cyber-enabled information warfare an existential threat? Explain your answer.
  4. Has the emergence of social media technology over the last 10-15 years significantly increased the threat of political violence?
  5. Describe the Grey Zone Strategy of EITHER Russia or China. Support your description using specific examples of their recent actions.
  6. One of the key objectives of the 2020 Defence Strategic Update is to shape Australia’s strategic environment. What role are information operations and/or cyber power likely to play in pursuing this objective?
  7. How likely is it that the United Nations will agree on a set of international norms for governing cyber conflict (i.e. cyber norms)? What will it take for this to happen?
  8. Propose your own research question that relates to the subject matter and is approved by the tutor (Michael Wieteska). Your proposed question must be emailed to Michael 
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Answer :

Information Operations and Cyber Power

Critical report

1. Introduction

The training and educating of the journalists in progressive exploratory methods: is termed tradecraft.Reporters' communications with the whistle-blowers are further expected to derive in Signal chats, even securing drop boxes compared to the D.C. garages (Tcij, 2021). Also, that alteration has transformed the relations of involvement infrequently perplexing ways. The The reporters are taught the proper methods that help them understand the main issues of the situation that is triggering confusion and formulate the headings and news in front of the audience that will attract them and give them good views or attention (Benton, 2019). In the study, the critical representation of two news reports will be stated where one projects clear tradecraft of the journalists with valid and authentic information and evidence. In contrast, on the other hand, there is evidence of fake news, which is supported by other news articles. The Guardian states the news about the improvement in the graph where no new COVID-19 cases have been found in any community. In contrast, CNN says the news about the US President Donald Trump to visit the areas affected by a hurricane, which happens to be fake news as the news article supports the news of CNN and proves it to be fake news.

2. Accuracy of the Title

Shapiro et al. (2013) commented that accuracy seems to be professional identity of the journalist as it help in creating proper awareness. The Guardian news article has given accurate title is aligning with the content of the article the heading of the news clearly states that there have been no fresh cases of covid 19 within the Queensland which has been a matter of good news for the population of the country this news was confirmed by the Annastacia Palaszczuk also the chief health officer of Queensland Dr Jeannette Young states that 33,357 tests were conducted within the country where the number of positive results was deficient which made her confirm that the count of coronavirus cases have reduced (Rachwani, 2021).

As commented by Maier (2005, p.533), accuracy is the most significant principle of journalism but this seems to be often violated. For instance, CNN Politics gives a title that states that Trump visited Hurricane Florence that is ravaged Carolinas. Whereas, as far as the content is concerned, there is no such evidence which states that Trump physically visited the areas; instead, he was more engrossed in just showing condolences to the families who had lost their loved ones in the floods, yet no serious actions were taken by the President neither were there any pieces of evidence that showed that he had physically attended the affected areas of the flood (Liptak, 2018). Rather, the statements which he gave were more likely to be vague and meaningless. 

Also, News has given a title that is entirely accurate to the content. By reading the content, the readers will understand whatever the inner news is all about without even reading the whole article. This article showcases that the news that was published by CNN Politics happens to be fake news because this news article clearly shows in what manner the images of Donald Trump has been photoshopped by the admirers and followers of Trump. Therefore, News exposes the news of Trump’s visit in the Florence and the images used as evidence to show Trump's physical presence in the flood-affected areas (Fernando, 2018). 

3. Consistency of logic

The Guardian fails to continue or maintain the consistency of the logic because, in the first half of the article, it talks about the diminishing rates of the COVID-19  cases. Still, in the second half of the article, there is when a contradicting statement is stated where Dr Young is not fully assuring that the COVID-19  cases have fully decreased while talking about the vaccines Dr Young states that she cannot be fully confident that there will be no mounting cases of COVID-19  until everyone is getting vaccinated. Therefore such statements are not validating the heading or the title of the article(Rachwani, 2021). Young states that the nurses who had assisted the factors and the patients of COVID-19 have not yet received any vaccines, yet no such symptoms have been shown by them. Nonetheless, the fear of being affected and spreading the virus remains.  

Journalists should write trustworthy and authentic news for the public as without that the journalism will be unethical (Roberts, 2019).The Australian journalism represents that journalists need to provide equal opportunity to every data, strive to improve the accuracy level of data and correct all the errors fairly in order to deliver a robust and authentic data to readers that can reflect on an incident critically (Edmondson, 2018). In the CNN Politics news article, there is no logic in the content, and the evidence also fails to match with the title. The logic that was supposed to be presented in the article was in what way has Mr Donald Trump, the President of United States, been helpful towards the victims of the hurricane and his measures and steps are taken to assist and provide shelter to the victims also the evidence of his physical presence, but the content of the news article fails to show any of this rather there is one line in the article which states his concern where he inquired the local authorities(Liptak, 2018). Also, the supporting article that represent the news of CNN is fake that is News has a good consistency of logic as the content and the title of the news has relevance to one another; also, the consistency in the meaning, logic and evidence is depicted in the article (Fernando, 2018). As the article gives pieces of evidence of how the photoshopping has been done of Trump’s face and proved the news of CNN to be wrong and fake. 

4. Use of evidence

In the Guardian, the usage of evidence has been done correctly as the reporter has framed its sentences and information depending on the statements and evidence it has obtained from the experts. The report has not extracted any information from other websites or news articles, so no credit has been given to any publisher or news article website. Nevertheless, the source from which the news has been obtained is by gathering the statements of Dr Young, who also confirms the diminishing rate of covid 19(Rachwani, 2021). The acknowledgment has been given to the doctor, as direct quotes of the doctor have been given. 

In CNN Politics, there is a considerable lack of evidence as to the title states that Trump had taken a step forward for helping the victims of the hurricane. However, the reporter of the news article has failed to give all possible evidence that will demarcate that the news and the title are entirely authentic. The news reporter has used the direct quiet of Donald Trump, where his statements have no relevance to the title used for the news article. Also, there have been no supporting pictures and videos that show the physical presence of Trump in Carolinas(Liptak, 2018).There has been no proper evidence that will show that Trump had visited the offices of local authorities of Carolina to check the progress of the situation; the news was only written and manipulated by the reporter, which is evident as no proof was provided from the reporter's end. The supporting articleNews has used proper and accurate demonstrations of evidence that clearly states that the news of Trump's presence in the areas that were affected by floods and hurricane was completely fake, the process and the manner through which the photos have been edited to manipulate the news and give Trump a higher and good position as a president who is so considerate about his citizens (Fernando, 2018). However, the reporter of News has provided all possible evidence to prove the news wrong due and posted the real picture of Donald Trump throwing a ball of paper towards the crowd of the affected people, also from a reasonable distance which depicts that his admirers entirely photoshop the picture where Trump is seemed to lend a land and save a victim.

5. Reliability of the Publisher

The Guardian is one of the reliable publishers because according to their publications, there has been no such biasedness which has been seen by the readers, the news articles that they have been publishing has not shown any kind of partiality towards any country, political party or organization. The news articles written by the reporters have always brought out the original and authentic news as journalists that are appointed are appropriately trained about the trade crafting, which makes them scrutinize and look after the authenticity of the news(Rachwani, 2021). Though, looking at the current status of Queensland, there have been three new cases that have been shown up which in no way doubts the reliability or the authenticity of the Guardian's news article as the publishing date of the article is before the published current status(Queensland Government, 2021). 

In terms of CNN Politics, this source cannot be relied on after understanding the type of evidence and relevance it gives with the title and content the readers cannot entirely rely on the kind of news it circulates as the title depicts a different meaning and the inner content consists of a different meaning this tends to misguide the readers and therefore, the amount of reliability on the news that they circulate is hardly considered(Liptak, 2018). Also, because the publisher seems to be biased towards Trump, as the title claims and portrays Trump to be one of a kind and helpful man but, there was no such evidence that was presented. 

In the case of, the source and the publisher are also very reliable because not only is the content reliable, but the evidence and the pictures that the news article has provided to the customers also shows the authenticity it has been carrying with it. Also, this is not at all bias instead, and this news article tends to unmask or expose the true facts and actual incidents that had taken place by proving news of Trump's presence in Carolina to be fake.

6. Professionalism of the author

The author of the Guardian, Mostafa Rachwani is one of the most professional and unbiased reporters; she also holds an account in LinkedIn she has also previously worked in Turkey and Qatar. There have been no such grammatical errors in the writing of the news article, the framing of the sentences was accurate along with the usages of tenses, active and passive voices also have been placed accurately. 

The author of CNN Political, Kevin Liptak, also has a reputable background as he has been working for CNN for a long time now. He was appointed to cover the news of the White House, and he has been covering all the foreign and domestic policies of Trump and the campaign politics and internal affairs a matter. Therefore, this implies that his news cannot properly rely on because there is an absence of versatility, and the trade crafting has not been given much emphasis. 

The author of Gavin Fernando has been working for the News company, and previously he also has been working as a digital journalist due to which the trade casting opted by him is more reliable and adequate. This makes his news more authentic, and therefore, readers get more attentive and engrossed while reading his written articles.

7. The intended audience

The Guardian had its intended audience, who are mainly the population of Queensland, to make them feel safe and keep updated with the count and the progression in the betterment of the COVID-19 cases. Also, the article has not attracted any specific group since it has been published globally. Therefore, it gives notice to the population of Queensland also for the ones who are planning to migrate or fly to that place.

CNN Politics has its intended audience that is mainly the ones who admire whatever Trump does. The followers of the US President were the primary intended audience because the article states nothing but praises the activities of Donald Trump, which has not even taken place. This is proven because the statements of the author have not been supported with relevant pictures or videos.

New has their intended audience to be the ones who have been believing that the news of Trump's physical presence is true; this news intends to remove all types of doubt by showing the actual pictures and how the pictures of Mr Trump has been photoshopped (Fernando, 2018). 

8. Conclusion

The study can be concluded after understanding the meaning of trade casting, which is a course given to journalists or aspiring journalist to inspect and scrutinize the authenticity of the news that they are covering. The different perspectives of the different news articles of the Guardian, The CNN Politics and The authenticity and the ingenuity of the news articles also have been appropriately evaluated. The title of the Guardian news article matches with the inner content, whereas the title of CNN politics does not also the title of the News matches with the inner content of the article. The consistency of the logic is only present in News as the consistency of the theme and meaning is present. In contrast, for CNN, there is no consistency but for Guardian is partially consistent. The authors of the three news articles also have a clear mindset and good hold on English, which has been showcased in the study.