NTW100 Analysis Of Routing Protocols In Terms Of Security And Energy Efficiency Homework 1 Answer

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Question :

Assessment Details and Submission Guidelines
TrimesterT3 2020
Unit CodeNTW100
Unit TitleIntroduction to Computer Networking
Assessment TypeIndividual Homework 1
Assessment TitleAnalysis of routing protocols in terms of security, QoS, and energy efficiency
Purpose of the assessment (with thelearning outcome Mapping)The purpose of the assignment is to analyse the routing protocols and evaluate them in terms of Quality of Service. Students will be able to complete the following ULOs:
  • Identify and discuss key networking protocols and wireless technologies
  • Identify and describe key elements and components of networking systems
Total Marks90
Word limit1200 words

Assignment Description

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that act as both routers and hosts in an ad hoc wireless network and that dynamically self-organize in a wireless network without using any pre-established infrastructure. Routing in such environment is challenging as the topology of the network changes over time. This is while an efficient routing protocol can optimize network performance such as delivery ratio, delivery delay, and overhead.

In this assignment, students are required to discuss two routing protocols in MANET and submit a report including technical details on

  • The discussed routing mechanisms
  • The metrics that the discussed routing algorithm improve
  • Advantages and limitations of using these protocols in MANET

Lastly, you need to discuss the following case study and address the corresponding question about the media requirement of the network

During the design of most real-world networks, you’ll discover that using more than one type of networking medium is common. The usual reasons for needing more than one type of medium include the following:

  • Two or more areas must be interconnected, and the distance separating them is greater than the maximum segment length for the type of medium used in (or best suited for) each area.
  • A connection must pass through a high-interference environment (across some large transformers, near heavy-duty electrical motors, and so on). Failure to use a different type of medium increases the risk of impeding data flow. This reason is especially common for choosing fiber-optic cable or wireless in many networks, particularly when connecting floors in an office building and the only available pathway is the elevator shaft.
  • Certain parts of an internetwork might have to carry more traffic than other parts. Typically, the segment where traffic aggregates is the backbone, a common cable segment that interconnects subsidiary networks. (Think of a tree trunk as the backbone and its major branches as cable segments.) Often, a higher-capacity cable is used for a backbone (for example, fiber-optic cable or Cat 6 cable rated for Gigabit Ethernet), along with a higher- speed networking technology for attachments to the backbone. This arrangement means outlying segments might use conventional 10 or 100 Mbps Ethernet, and the backbone uses 1 Gbps or 10 Gbps Ethernet.

Using this information, suggest solutions that involve at least two types, if possible, of networking media to address the following problems:

  • A—XYZ Corp. is planning a new network. Engineers in the design shop must have connections to accountants and salespeople in the front office, but all routes between the two areas must traverse the shop floor, where arc welders and metal-stamping equipment create potent amounts of EMI and RFI. Given that both the design shop and front office use 10BaseT (twisted-pair Ethernet), how might you interconnect these two areas? What medium guarantees immunity from interference?
  • B—After the front-office network at XYZ Corp. is set up, an accountant realizes that if the loading dock connected to the network, dock workers could log incoming and outgoing shipments and keep the inventory more current. Even though the loading dock is nowhere near the shop floor, the dock is 1100 feet from the front office. What kinds of cable will work to make this connection? What kind would you choose and why?
  • C—ABC Company occupies three floors in a 10-story building, where the elevator shaft provides the only path to all these floors. In addition, users on the 9th and 10th floors must access a collection of servers on the 8th floor. 4 Critical Thinking 185 Explain what kind of connections would work in the elevator shaft. If more than one choice is possible, pick the best option and explain the reasons for your choice. Assuming that inter-floor connections might someday need to run at much higher speeds, re-evaluate your choice. What’s the best type of medium for open-ended bandwidth needs? Explain your answer.
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Answer :

Introduction to routing

In this report, we will discuss about the mobile ad hoc network or MANET. There are so many advanced features of a MANET which are challenging as well when used in different type of topologies. This report provides details about the routing mechanism, metrics to improve routing algorithm and advantages and disadvantages of those when using with the MANET. Further it details the need of different types of connectivity mediums or cabling types that are used in different scenarios for different purposes like for large distance, high data transfer capacity and impacted with environmental interference. 

Analysis of routing protocols

A MANET network is a wireless network where many types of mobile devices are connected with self-configuring and self-organizing capabilities without any wires. There are a total of three categories of routing protocols works in a MANET network, as proactive, reactive and hybrid. The DSDV (destination sequenced distance vector) is a proactive routing protocol while DSR (dynamic source routing) routing protocol is a reactive routing protocol on which we will discuss in this section, can be seen at [1]. 

DSR (Dynamic Source Routing) – it works on on-demand routing needs. In this routing type, route to a destination is discovered only when it is needed. After that the route discovery will done by flooding the request packets to find routes in the MANET network. It works on two basic metrics as route discovery, which determine the best path of destination from source and route maintenance, which works like dynamic network in the MANET topology to let the network overcome from different types of failures or breakages. The metrics used in this protocol will improves the flow request, request and change path metrics and encode path metrics. This protocol has some advantages as, it uses reactive method rather than regularly flooding the network with updates and the intermediate hosts can use this information effectively to eliminate the losses due to overhead. Disadvantages are – it unable to repair local brokage of a link, connection delay is high, degraded performance and routing overhead is there which increased by path length, can be seen at [2].  

DSDV (Destination Sequence Distance Vector) – it is a proactive routing protocol which is similarly works like distance vector routing protocol. It uses Bellman-ford algorithm for routing. A distance sequence number is added to every entry of routing table by every node. They also update the table if there is any updated route found in the network which have high sequence number. This routing protocol has several advantages like it has path to all destination with less delay, it uses sequence number for incremental updates which will helpful when wired protocols are used in an ad hoc network. While it also has some disadvantages like it regularly update its routing table with routing updates which highly consume battery power, a new sequence number is needed when the topology changes and re-convergence occur and it is not suitable for large networks, can be seen at [3]. 

Case study A

According to the provided scenario, where two departments need to be connected on different floors and the area is prone to RFI and EMI interference, we just have an option to choose the fibre optic cable here. The fibre optic cable is not vulnerable to loss of signal due to EMI and RFI sources. The fibre optic cables can be used to connect these two areas that can be further uses STP (shielded twisted pair) cable to interconnect the end user devices. As we know that both the EMI and RFI will generate disturbance in the connecting medium and degrade the performance of the network, also create loss of packets and resending conditions. But the fibre optic cable is immune to these interferences while the shielded twisted pair cable (10BaseT) is partially immune to these interferences, can be seen at [4]. Having both fibre optic cable between the departments and STP cable for interconnection, this approach will provide maximum guarantee that the communication between the two areas will be immune to the RFI and EMI interference. 

Case study B

In this scenario, we need to connect the loading dock to the network to make the work efficient and easier. Here, the loading dock is eleven feet (335 meters) away from the front office where the company network ends. For this distance, we have two options to select the connectivity media from, as we can a 10Base5 coaxial cable which is capable of carrying data at 10 Mbps speed for the distance of 500 meters or 1640 feet while another option is to use 1000BaseSX fibre optic cable which can provide 1000 Mbps (1 Gbps) data transfer speed for the distance of 550 meters or 1800 feet, can be seen at [5]. Both options are best suited according to the provided scenario. Here we can compare and choose one of them, as the coaxial cable provide lesser throughput speed of 10 Mbps while fibre optic cable provides 1 Gbps throughput speed which is ten times faster than coaxial cable. Also, the coaxial cable of less costly than the fibre optic cable. So, according to my opinion, they choose coaxial cable for this implementation because the provided speed is sufficient for the dock workers to update the inventory and get other details about it. 

Case study C

In this scenario, we need to connect the floor via the elevated shaft where the chosen cable type will be prone to the interference of EMI, oil, water and some other types of interferences. Here, we need to use a riser with the category cable. We can select from the Category 5e and fibre optic cable. The Cat 6 cable is also work sufficiently in this scenario with no issue with the distance factor while the fibre optic cable will be much faster and provide protection against EMI and other types of interference. We can also use wireless access points at each floor to wirelessly connect the end user devices. These WAPs will be connected via Cat6 cable and can provide a maximum throughput speed of up to 300 Mbps, can be seen at [6]. While choosing fibre optic cable will not compatible with wireless access points in terms of connecting ends (connectors). So, I recommend to choose and implement riser Cat 6 cable to run through the elevated shaft and optional wireless access points, connected via the Cat6 cable at the floors, will be the best option for this scenario. 


In this assignment, we have conducted a thorough research on different types of networks and networking resources. We first searched for ad hoc routing protocols, analyse them with their working and advantages and disadvantages. Then, we research and identify the best connectivity medium for the three given scenarios where we search and select a right and best medium to connect the locations and networks for the particular company. The report provides details of the research with the best solutions of the case studies.