NTW100 Analysis Of Routing Protocols In Terms Of Security Homework Answer

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Question :

Assessment Details and Submission Guidelines
TrimesterT3 2020
Unit CodeNTW100
Unit TitleIntroduction to Computer Networking
Assessment TypeSup-Assignment
Assessment TitleAnalysis of routing protocols in terms of security, QoS, and energy efficiency
Purpose of the assessment (with thelearning outcome Mapping)The purpose of the assignment is to analyse the routing protocols and evaluate them in terms of Quality of Service. Students will be able to complete the following ULOs:
  • Identify and discuss key networking protocols and wireless technologies
  • Identify and describe key elements and components of networking systems
Total Marks90
Word limit1200 words

Assignment Description

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that act as both routers and hosts in an ad hoc wireless network and that dynamically self-organize in a wireless network without using any pre-established infrastructure. Routing in such environment is challenging as the topology of the network changes over time. This is while an efficient routing protocol can optimize network performance such as delivery ratio, delivery delay, and overhead.

In this assignment, students are required to discuss two routing protocols in MANET and submit a report including technical details on

  • The discussed routing mechanisms
  • The metrics that the discussed routing algorithm improve
  • Advantages and limitations of using these protocols in MANET

Lastly, you need to discuss the following case study and address the corresponding question about the media requirement of the network

During the design of most real-world networks, you’ll discover that using more than one type of networking medium is common. The usual reasons for needing more than one type of medium include the following:

  • Two or more areas must be interconnected, and the distance separating them is greater than the maximum segment length for the type of medium used in (or best suited for) each area.
  • A connection must pass through a high-interference environment (across some large transformers, near heavy-duty electrical motors, and so on). Failure to use a different type of medium increases the risk of impeding data flow. This reason is especially common for choosing fiber-optic cable or wireless in many networks, particularly when connecting floors in an office building and the only available pathway is the elevator shaft.
  • Certain parts of an internetwork might have to carry more traffic than other parts. Typically, the segment where traffic aggregates is the backbone, a common cable segment that interconnects subsidiary networks. (Think of a tree trunk as the backbone and its major branches as cable segments.) Often, a higher-capacity cable is used for a backbone (for example, fiber-optic cable or Cat 6 cable rated for Gigabit Ethernet), along with a higher- speed networking technology for attachments to the backbone. This arrangement means outlying segments might use conventional 10 or 100 Mbps Ethernet, and the backbone uses 1 Gbps or 10 Gbps Ethernet.

Using this information, suggest solutions that involve at least two types, if possible, of networking media to address the following problems:

  • A—XYZ Corp. is planning a new network. Engineers in the design shop must have connections to accountants and salespeople in the front office, but all routes between the two areas must traverse the shop floor, where arc welders and metal-stamping equipment create potent amounts of EMI and RFI. Given that both the design shop and front office use 10BaseT (twisted-pair Ethernet), how might you interconnect these two areas? What medium guarantees immunity from interference?
  • B—After the front-office network at XYZ Corp. is set up, an accountant realizes that if the loading dock connected to the network, dock workers could log incoming and outgoing shipments and keep the inventory more current. Even though the loading dock is nowhere near the shop floor, the dock is 1100 feet from the front office. What kinds of cable will work to make this connection? What kind would you choose and why?
  • C—ABC Company occupies three floors in a 10-story building, where the elevator shaft provides the only path to all these floors. In addition, users on the 9th and 10th floors must access a collection of servers on the 8th floor. 4 Critical Thinking 185 Explain what kind of connections would work in the elevator shaft. If more than one choice is possible, pick the best option and explain the reasons for your choice. Assuming that inter-floor connections might someday need to run at much higher speeds, re-evaluate your choice. What’s the best type of medium for open-ended bandwidth needs? Explain your answer.
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Answer :

Introduction to Routing

This assignment report is about to discussed on the MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network) network. a MANET network is a group of mobile devices which acts like both a host and a router. This networking devices has so many other advantages when using in a wireless topology. In this network type, different routing protocols are used from the ethernet and other technologies. Routing is also a challenging task in a MANET network. So, in this report, we will be discussed about two different routing protocols which we can used in this network and have different benefits. Further, the report will describe the type of communication medium, based on the given case study, beneficial to use in that network topology.

Analysis of Routing Protocols

As we know that MANET is a wireless network where a number of mobile devices can be connected using wireless technology. There are many types of routing protocols present which are used in this network. These routing protocols are important in terms of providing a good performance to the network. So, it should be capable to handle a number of mobile nodes which will moving in the network. We select two routing protocol, as DSR and AODV to be used in MANET network and further discuss in detail on these routing protocol, can be seen at [1].

DSR – it is a demand routing protocol. This protocol is very simple and efficient enough to be used in a MANET network which can provide self-configured and self-organized network design besides the need of any specific network infrastructure. It is used by various users around the globe to connect to internet, mobile IP and with the capability of migration between WLAN, mobile network and cellular network. DSR allow multiple routes between network where every sender and receiver have control over the routes and the routing packets. It also offers rapid recovery and loop free routing when a network change occurs. The metrics used in this protocol will improves the flow request, request and change path metrics and encode path metrics. This protocol is capable to handle up to two hundred hosts or nodes in a MANET network with high mobility rate, can be seen at [2]. 

AODV – it is also a demand routing protocol. This routing protocol deals a network with the route table management. It maintains a route table even for a short mobile network and provide a loop free routing with a self-start environment. It uses Bellman-ford algorithm for routing. It can handle a variety of network behaviours like loss of packets, host mobility and failure of link. The routing table maintained by AODV, have entries of each source and destination node present in the network with relevant details like next hop, hop count or sequence number, etc., can be seen at [3]. 

Here is a brief comparison between DSR and AODV routing protocols with their advantages and disadvantages, can be seen at [4] – 

It works on source routing
It works on hop-by-hop routing mechanism 
No life of route entries 
Longer life of a route in the routing table
It has multiple routes between source and destination which need high storage 
It has single route per destination with less storage demand
It did not have mechanism to avoid stale route
It uses conservative methods to avoid stale routes and a new route is chosen every time.
Scalability issue and less route discovery cycle
Scalability issues and higher route discovery cycle.
It uses source routing without timer-based activities 
It uses table driven routing on timer-based activities
Poor performance in a mobile network
Good performance in a mobile network

Case Study A

For the provided case study, to interconnect two areas which are prone to EMI and RFI interferences, we have just one option to use a fibre optic cable. Because the fibre optic cable is only immune to RFI and EMI signals. A fibre optic cable uses signals instead of electric current which enable it with this resistance. With the use of a fibre optic cable, the XYZ Corp. can have a hybrid network where they have a main network established with fibre channel and to connect the end user devices, they can use Cat 5 or Cat 6 cable. Here, fibre cables are used to connect switches and Cat cable use to connect end user devices to a switch. This approach will provide a complete solution to them by avoiding the EMI and RFI interference issue in the network. While using a shielded twisted pair cable will not able to solve the issue when compared to the fibre optic approach which provide protection against interference and also offer higher throughput speed among the different floors, can be seen at [5] [6]. 

Case Study B

For this provided case study, a dock station is need to be connected to the office network which is 1100 feet away from it. Here, one of the best options is to use a fibre optic cable or a 10-Base-T coaxial cable. Choosing the coaxial will also resolve the issue because it works for the distance of up to 500 meters and is cheaper than the fibre cable. But when we use a fibre optic cable, it also works for the needed distance and provide much higher speed (max 10 Gbps) than a coaxial cable. Both of these options are best suited for this scenario. From which we can choose and select one based on the required throughput. As the fibre optic cable will offer higher speed and resist towards EMI, RFI and other interferences while coaxial cable provide less throughput speed and prone to these type of interferences as compare to fibre optic cable. So, choosing a fibre optic cable is the best option here in terms of protection to the network and high throughput speed, can be seen at [7]. 

Case Study C

For the provided case study, when the network cable is gone through the elevated shaft, there is issues like EMI, water, oil and other interferences which effects network performance. For this situation, we can choose a Cat 6 cable with riser or we can go for a fibre optic cable which is resist from such interferences. Choosing a fibre optic cable also provide high speed of up to 10 Gbps for higher distance. While the Cat 6 cable will provide a throughput speed of up to 300 Mbps for required distance. We can connect fibre optic cable throughout the elevated shaft, connect the networking devices like switches with Cat 6 cable and can use wireless access points at the end, to connect user devices via the wireless network. Which will be a best option, can be seen at [8]. 


In this assignment work, we gone through a brief research on a MANET network and the routing protocols used in this network. we select two wireless routing protocols, as DSR and AODV, discuss their details with used routing mechanisms and their advantages and disadvantages of using them in a MANET network. After that, we research to provide a beneficial solution on the provided case studies. For the three case studies, we will search a best solution and a backup solution to compare it with so that the best will be chosen.